Wilderness Exploration in Saleh'Alire | World Anvil

Wilderness Exploration


Getting Set Up


Terrain & Environment

Not all deserts are covered with sand, and not all of them are in hot climates, but every desert has one thing in common with all the others: They are very, very dry. The technical definition of a desert is any area that receives less than 10 inches of rain per year; in actuality, the yearly rainfall in most deserts might be half of that amount or even less.   The lack of moisture in a desert does not render the area totally barren or uninhabitable. Many plants and animals are naturally able to cope with a severe shortage of water; the cactus and the camel are perhaps the best-known examples. However, characters are not so fortunate; they need water frequently and in fairly large amounts, and the best way to satisfy this need during a trek across the desert is to carry a supply of drinking water (or the means to produce water magically). Although it is possible to find water in the desert, either by stumbling across an oasis or by digging for ground water, neither of these methods is especially reliable.   Most deserts are composed of dry, hard-packed earth beneath a layer of gravel, with the terrain occasionally broken by a clump of large boulders. Water can be particularly difficult to find in this kind of desert terrain, because the rainfall tends to run off the surface (flowing toward a place of lower elevation) instead of soaking into the ground. Relatively few deserts are covered with sand, which does permit water to soak into the terrain from where it can be recovered later.   The icy wastes of the polar regions can also be considered deserts. In a desolate place such as the arctic north, vegetation and animal life are even more scarce than in a desert located in a hot climate. Although moisture is abundant on the ground (in the form of ice), the terrain still qualifies as desert because it receives very little precipitation.   On a sandy desert, dunes are formed by the action of the wind; their shape and size depend upon the amount of sand and the velocity of the wind that moves it around. Where sand is abundant and the wind is at least occasionally very strong, dunes can grow to be more than 500 feet high. The slope gradually ascends in the direction of the wind. From the peak of the dune, the sand slopes down sharply on the side opposite the wind direction. In a very active wind, the peak of a dune can move several hundred feet in only a day or two; as windblown sand cascades down the slope away from the wind, that side of the dune becomes able to support more and more sand, and eventually the dune peaks at a point farther downwind. Where the supply of sand is smaller and the wind is less intense, dunes are correspondingly smaller and shorter. In fact, the technical definition of “dune” is an accumulation of sand, formed by wind action, that is no more than 70 feet high. Anything larger is properly called a sand mountain, or “draa.”   An object (or a character) that remains in one spot for any great length of time in a desert with heavy sand cover may end up buried under tons of sand. On the other hand, the action of the shifting sands may uncover the entrance to the hidden temple that you’ve been searching for.
This type of terrain has much more to do with topography than with ecology. A forest can be hilly, as can a desert (even a sandy desert, if you consider the dunes to be hills). Hills can be gently rolling mounds or craggy, mountainlike piles of rock and earth that jut out of the surrounding landscape. So for purposes of classifying a certain area that includes hilly terrain, the Dungeon Master can use the following guidelines: Any irregular (not level) terrain.   An area of gently rolling hills at an elevation of less than 2,000 feet containing few or no trees is classified as some type of terrain other than hills; use whichever designation (desert, plains, swamp, or seacoast) is appropriate. An area is classified as hills if it is generally at an elevation of less than 2,000 feet, contains few or no trees, and has sharply sloping mounds with peaks that may rise above 2,000 feet.   Or, an area is classified as hills if it is at an elevation of between 2,000 and 4,000 feet, generally contains irregular terrain. and has few or no trees.
For game purposes, mountainous terrain is devoid of large vegetation and usually occurs at high elevation (4,000 feet or above). A heavily wooded area on the lower slopes of a mountain should be considered as forest, even if the elevation is higher than 4,000 feet. A mountainous region (for determination of movement, encounters, food availability, etc.) begins where the trees end. On Earth, the “tree line” (at about 10,000 feet above sea level) marks the place where deciduous growth gives way to coniferous trees, which are better suited for survival at higher elevations and colder temperatures. Beyond the “snow line” (12,000 feet), trees cannot prosper, and only low-lying plants and shrubs can be found; if characters have not reached mountainous terrain by the time they’ve climbed this high, they will certainly be in mountains if they go any higher. A barren, rocky slope that begins at relatively low elevation and rises high above the surrounding area can also be considered as mountainous terrain, even if the base of the slope is lower than 4,000 feet above sea level.   If hills can be described as irregular terrain, then mountains are downright chaotic. If there is a level spot to be found on a mountainside, it will probably be surrounded on all sides by severe slopes and vertical or near-vertical cliff faces. Of course, the lower slopes of a mountain are much less treacherous than the area near the peak - but, as noted above, the lower slopes often contain features (usually trees) that require the area to be classified as something other than mountainous.   At any elevation higher than the snow line, some of the rocky surface of a mountain will be covered with snow or ice, making travel even more hazardous. In contrast, exposed rock surfaces at high altitudes can become much warmer than the air temperature because they absorb heat from the sun throughout the day- and on a mountain, there is no such thing as shade except on a slope opposite the sun or in the area beneath an overhang.   A mountain is a study in contrasts - warm in some places, cold in others; practically impossible to climb in some spots, fairly easy to negotiate in others; a place of safety or a place of danger, depending on your point of view and how well equipped you are to deal with the terrain. Not all mountainous areas are inherently treacherous, but adventurers who ascend into the peaks without proper planning and preparation are either very desperate or very foolish.
The term “forest” covers a lot of ground, literally and figuratively. In the typical campaign world, unspoiled by industrial revolutions and large-scale lumbering operations, expanses of densely packed trees can be found in any climate except the polar regions, where the eternal cold makes it impossible for trees and other large plants to survive.   Forests in different climatic areas contain different kinds of trees: evergreens, or conifers, in the subarctic; deciduous, or leaf-bearing, in temperate regions; and “evergreens” of an entirely different sort in subtropical and tropical areas. Characters may discover a large stand of tall cactus in the middle of a desert, but this feature does not qualify as a forest in game terms; the area is still considered as desert for purposes of weather determination, availability of food and water, and so forth.   Taiga is the name often used to refer to the band of forest that exists on Earth, forming a rough circle just south of the Arctic Circle. The northern edge of the taiga is the “tree line,” north of which the climate will not support large plant life. The conifers get their name from their distinctive shape- a tall, thin cone that enables them to shed snow easily. Their branches are tightly packed with twigs, and the twigs are covered with needles - leaves that are very narrow and have a very small surface area, so that the tree loses very little water through evaporation. (Conifers don’t need as much water as other trees, but they have to be careful to conserve what they do receive.) Conifer branches are a good source of material for an impromptu shelter because their ”leaves” are so densely packed. Where water is relatively more abundant (near rivers and lakes, and on the southern edge of the taiga), some broadleaf trees may be located. They blossom only briefly during the short subarctic summer, but are able to prosper year after year because of the availability of water.   Temperate forests contain a wide variety of trees, all of which have one important common feature: They are very adaptable, able to withstand the scorching heat of a temperate summer as well as the vicious deep-freeze of a temperate winter. Most temperate forests are composed primarily of deciduous trees - the kind that shed their leaves when cold weather approaches, stand with branches bared to the winter wind, and then grow new leaves when the cold season is over. A temperate forest is a lush breeding ground for many types of smaller plants because the “crop” of fallen leaves each autumn keeps the soil rich in nutrients. However, there are fewer ground plants and less underbrush in a temperate forest than in a rainforest, for the reasons explained in the following paragraph. The largest trees in a temperate forest (usually oak, maple, and ash) can be as much as 160 feet tall with a “leafspan” nearly as great as that.   Rainforest is the name usually given to forests in subtropical and tropical climates. The distinctive feature of a rainforest is its ‘‘layered’’ composition; trees of several different heights coexist with low-lying shrubs and ferns. Most of the trees in a rainforest have thin, straight trunks that stretch toward the sky and are topped (in the fashion of an ice-cream cone or a mushroom) by a roughly egg-shaped clump of vegetation. The trees do not spread out close to the ground the way that trees in a temperate forest do, which makes it possible for a rainforest to support a thick layer of low-lying vegetation at ground level. On a sunny day, a lot of light reaches the floor of a rainforest; on the same kind of day in a temperate forest, many areas beneath wide, tall trees remain shaded from dawn to dusk. As one might expect from its name, a rainforest is also covered with vegetation because of the large amount of precipitation the area receives. Trees in a rainforest are green all year round; before old leaves grow large and drop off, new ones have already appeared to take their places.
The name itself implies something unexciting, even boring. But, in the words of the original bard, What’s in a name? The plains of Africa and South America, known as savannas, support perhaps the greatest diversity of wildlife of any place on Earth. The great plain of central North America, before it was “domesticated,” was also teeming with wildlife - and, of course, with the vegetation that the wildlife needed to survive.   This terrain designation takes in many types of flat areas, most of which (except in an arctic climate) have at least a moderately dense cover of low-lying vegetation - grasses and small shrubs that have remarkable regenerative powers even after they are eaten almost down to ground level by hungry animals. An occasional tree or small grove of trees also dots the landscape - not enough trees to qualify as a forest, but enough to provide protection from a herd of stampeding elephants. The monotony of the level terrain may be periodically broken by rolling hills or bluffs, but again these features are not frequent enough or predominant enough to cause a change in classification.   Food and water are generally easy to find on a plain, but the materials for an impromptu shelter (tree branches, logs, etc.) are not so easily come by. Because the terrain is usually flat and featureless, adventurers should be especially careful to keep their eyes and ears open: Whenever they can see for a long distance, they should realize that they, in turn, can be seen from far away.
Simply put, practically any place that is a short distance from an ocean is seacoast terrain. In these rules, the distinction is important for determining weather conditions, the availability of animals (for food) and the availability of plant life (for both food and medicinal purposes). If the Dungeon Master uses encounter tables such as those in the Dungeon Masters Guide or Monster Manual 11 for determining possible confrontations with wildlife or other residents of the area, the seacoast area should be considered as some other type of terrain that conforms to the classifications in the encounter tables.
In game terms, a swamp is any place where a character’s feet hit standing water shortly before hitting the ground. Swamps are always located at low elevation or on flat or slightly depressed land at the edge of a river or lake. The vegetation may resemble that of a grassy plain, or it may be forestlike, but no matter what shape and size it comes in, there is always a lot of it; the soil in swampy areas is extremely fertile because it contains a great quantity of decomposed vegetable matter - and, of course, no plant in a swamp ever has to go very far for water.   The depth of the standing water in a swamp can vary from practically zero (where the ground is merely spongy) to several feet, and sometimes goes from shallow to deep in the space of just a few steps if the underlying terrain is irregular. Movement through a swamp can be very difficult, if not actually dangerous, and a swamp is not a good place to take mounts or pack animals. If the shortest distance between two points would take characters on a path through a swamp, they would be well advised to circumvent the soggy area and spend a few more steps to get where they’re going. But if their destination is insidethe swamp. . . well, even if the adventure isn’t wild, it will certainly be wet.

Temperature & Weather

Temperature is the one factor in an outdoor environment that must constantly be taken into consideration. It may or may not be raining, the wind may be calm or ferocious, but the air around characters is always of a certain temperature- and if the temperature is very hot or very cold, the atmosphere itself may prove to be a greater hazard to adventurers than any monsters they might encounter.  
Actual temperature is equivalent to what the Dungeon Master would read on a thermometer (if such a device existed). It is, simply, the temperature of the air itself.
The actual temperature modified by conditions that raise or lower the temperature in terms of how it affects characters exposed to it. If the air has an actual temperature of 20 degrees but a stiff wind is blowing, then the effectivetemperature is considerably lower than 20 degrees, and characters and creatures exposed to the wind are affected accordingly.
The effective temperature further modified by conditions peculiar to a certain character. Someone who is dressed in heavy clothing at a low effective temperature has a higher personal temperature than someone who is lightly clad. Each of these terms is used in various places throughout the book, and the distinction is usually quite important.
  Your first step in determining a region’s baseline weather is to decide upon the region’s climate. Climate is split up into one of three categories: cold, temperate and tropical. These types correspond to the three climate categories used in monster entries in all of the Pathfinder Bestiary volumes (note that a fourth category, extraplanar, is not a factor in determining weather for Material Plane worlds).  
A cold climate is found in the extreme northern or southern regions of the world at latitudes greater than 60 degrees (approximately 2,000 miles from a pole). In these polar regions, temperatures often remain below freezing throughout the majority of the year. The baseline temperature in this climate is cold, ranging from 20º F in the winter, to 30º F in the spring and fall months, and up to 40º F in the summer. For regions within 500 miles of the pole, the baseline temperature is 10º F colder than the seasonal average. For regions within 250 miles of the pole, the baseline temperature is 20º F colder than the seasonal average. Because cold air tends to be drier than warm air, reduce the frequency and intensity of precipitation by one step in cold climates (see page 167).
Temperate climates stretch between the polar regions and tropical regions of the world, generally at latitudes between 60 degrees and 30 degrees. The baseline temperature in this climate ranges from 30º F in winter, to 60º F in spring and fall, and all the way up to 80º F in summer. Precipitation frequency is not altered as a result of a temperate climate, but it can still be altered as a result of other factors such as the elevation or season (see below).
The tropics exist to either side of the world’s equator, extending north and south for about 30 degrees of latitude in either direction. Tropical regions tend to be warm and humid, with a baseline temperature ranging from 50º F in winter, to 75º F in spring and fall, and up to 95º F in summer. Because warm, humid air produces a great deal of precipitation, increase the frequency and intensity of precipitation by one step in this climate (see page 167).
  While the climate sets baselines for temperatures, elevation plays a key factor as well. Elevation can affect the baseline temperature, and it sets the baseline intensity of precipitation in the region.  
Sea Level
Temperatures in sea-level and coastal regions are 10º warmer. Sea-level regions also tend to have more precipitation than areas of higher elevation, so the baseline precipitation intensity in a sea-level region is heavy.
Lowlands are areas of low elevation not near the coast, generally at an elevation of 1,000 to 5,000 feet. This elevation range does not alter baseline temperatures. The baseline precipitation intensity in lowlands is medium.
Highlands include regions with elevations above 5,000 feet. Decrease baseline temperatures in highlands by 10º (although in particularly arid and flat regions, you should instead increase the baseline temperature by 10º, while in particularly high-altitude regions such as significant mountain ranges, you should instead decrease the baseline temperature by 20º). The frequency of precipitation is decreased by one step, and baseline precipitation intensity is medium.
  A year has four seasons—spring, summer, fall, and winter— each of which lasts about 3 months. Season plays an important part in dictating a region’s baseline temperature. It also dictates the baseline precipitation frequency in a region before applying adjustments due to climate or elevation. In most regions with cold and temperate climates, precipitation frequency is intermittent during spring and fall, common during the summer, and rare during the winter. In most regions with tropical climates, precipitation frequency is common during spring and fall, intermittent during the summer, and rare during the winter. And on worlds with a tilt in their axis, the seasons are typically reversed between northern and southern hemispheres. While it is the height of summer in the north, the areas south of the equator are in the depths of winter.   Once you have established weather baselines for a region and adjust them to match the elevation and season, the next step is to breathe life into the weather by determining the temperature’s variation from the adjusted baseline and the daily precipitation. With this system, you can build out weather patterns and events as far as you want into the future.  
Weather is constantly changing, and a significant aspect of that change is the temperature. For the purposes of this system, it’s easiest to assume that the daily temperature remains relatively static during daylight hours and then drops by 2d6+3 degrees during the night. When setting a day’s temperature in a terrain, you can roll on the temperature variations table appropriate to the climate; the result determines how you should alter the adjusted baseline temperature, and also suggests the duration of that change.
If the PCs will be in a region for some time, it’s a good idea to plan out the weather’s variations and events at least a week in advance so if a character tries to use Survival to predict the weather, you’ll have information to work with.   On the other hand, if you know the PCs are going to be in a region for only a few days, planning our a full week of weather isn’t necessary. And of course, you can randomly generate weather on a day-by-day basis if you’re comfortable with the possibility of an unexpected turn complicating the game’s other events.
Armor is any attire that offers some protection in combat by improving the character’s armor class; clothing is any attire that usually does not provide such protection. Clothing is classified in one of four categories, according to the temperature range for which it is best suited.  
Very Cold
Very cold clothing provides good protection from the elements at temperatures below 0 degrees. This category includes thick garments such as parkas and trousers made from the furs of animals that are accustomed to very cold weather (bears, wolves, etc.). Extremely important is the quality of insulation the clothing provides; the clothing should fit loosely, so that air can circulate between the body and the garment. This air is warmed by the body, and in turn helps to keep the body warm; in other words, the garment itself doesn’t have to do all the “work” of protecting the body from freezing. The equivalent of very cold clothing can be obtained by wearing two layers of cold clothing or four layers of moderate clothing. As a rule, multiple layers of relatively thin clothing provide more insulation (and thus more warmth) than a single garment equivalent in thickness to the multiple layers. However, in extremely cold temperatures there is no substitute for a thick, bulky garment (presumably worn over at least one layer of normal-temperature clothing) to act as a shield between the character’s body and the subzero temperature. Gloves or mittens, heavy foot coverings, and face coverings are also recommended, and often necessary, to prevent a character’s extremities from being affected by the cold even if the greater portion of his body is protected. Very cold clothing has en encumbrance value equivalent to that of plate mail (bulky, 450 gp), and an outfit of such clothing will cost about 15 gp.
Cold clothing offers adequate protection at temperatures from 0 to 30 degrees. This clothing need not be made of animal furs; often, a bulky and fairly thick garment of woven fabric will suffice. Wool has the best insulating qualities of any fabric that characters are likely to have access to; the very fibers of a wool garment contain “pockets” that add to the fabric’s ability to trap air. Canvas or some other tightly woven fabric is not nearly as good an insulator as wool, because it does not allow air to circulate through and under the garment. However, tightly woven fabrics do help to keep the body’s natural warmth from dissipating too quickly, and they act as good protection against the wind. Some kind of heavy garment, regardless of how it fits or what it is made of, is certainly better than nothing in cold or very cold temperatures. Cold clothing has an encumbrance value equivalent to that of ring mail (fairly bulky, 250 gp), and an outfit of such clothing will cost about 7 SP.
Moderate clothing covers a wide range of garments, since the category includes anything that keeps a character comfortable at temperatures from 31 to 75 degrees. At the lower end of this range (up to around 50 degrees), common sense dictates that some kind of light or moderately thick outer garment is necessary (in addition to normal clothing of the sort that would be worn in a heated room). At the upper end of this range, characters can usually get by with nothing more than the shirt (or tunic, or robe) on their back - except during rest stops and sleep periods, when a blanket or some similar extra protection may be needed to keep the body from being uncomfortably chilled. Moderate clothing may have no encumbrance value at all (if the Dungeon Master considers it to be the same as a character’s normal attire), or may be considered equivalent to leather armor (non-bulky, 150 gp) if the clothing is relatively heavy. An outfit of moderate clothing will usually cost no more than 3 gp.
Hot clothing keeps a character from becoming overheated when the temperature is higher than 75 degrees. The garments in this category are greatly varied in style and appearance, ranging from the loincloths worn by natives in a humid tropical forest to the full-length robes that entirely cover the bodies of tribesmen in the hot, dry air of the desert. When the humidity is high, the body tends to perspire more than normal, and it is best to expose as much skin as possible (within the bounds of decency) so that perspiration can evaporate and thereby help to keep the body cool. In a climate where the humidity is consistently low - usually also a place where water is scarce - the body does not perspire as readily, so the inhabitants keep themselves covered and are thereby able to retain more moisture. Hot clothing has no encumbrance value, and a minimal cost (perhaps as much as a robe, which is priced at 6 sp).

Natural Encounters

Wild Animals
Beware of approaching the young of any animal. The mother, whether a deer or a bear, will chase any intruder away. Suppose you come face to face with a larger animal that shows no disposition to retreat. The best thing to do is stand perfectly still and talk in as calm a manner as possible. The animal will probably move away but if it doesn't, you may have to retreat in a casual manner, avoiding sudden movements and still talking quietly. Running from an animal will often induce it to give chase.
While many forms of undergrowth can slow explorers, thorny brambles can prove a serious impediment. In addition to functioning as light or heavy undergrowth (Pathfinder RPG Core Rulebook 426), brambles damage creatures that move through a space filled with them. The amount of damage taken depends on whether the brambles are light or heavy and what type of armor the creature wears. Light brambles deal 1 point of damage to a creature wearing light armor that moves into their square, while heavy brambles deal 1d4 points of damage to a creature in light armor or 1 point of damage to a creature in medium armor. Creatures in heavy armor don’t take damage from brambles. A creature unwillingly forced into brambles can attempt a DC 15 Reflex save to avoid taking this damage.   Additionally, a creature moving through brambles must succeed at a Reflex save (DC 12 for light brambles, or DC 16 for heavy brambles) or become entangled. Entangled creatures can attempt to free themselves as a standard action with a successful Escape Artist or Strength check at the same DC. A creature needs to attempt this save against being entangled by brambles only when it enters a square of brambles.   A 5-foot square of brambles has AC 5 and hardness 2. A 5-foot square of light brambles has 30 hit points, while a 5-foot square of heavy brambles has 60 hit points. If a square of heavy brambles is reduced to 30 or fewer hit points, it functions as a square of light brambles instead.
Bad weather can be catastrophic in the wilderness, and weather considerations can be a crucial factor in survival for anyone lost or stranded; should they stay where they are- or try to get out of the backcountry by themself, or seek some kind of shelter? An ability to predict the weather comes in handy in such a case, but not everyone has that even when magic abounds.   Lightning Storms: As with the other types of severe precipitation discussed above, a lightning storm presents no special hazard to characters who take simple precautions. However, the word “simple” in this context is an expression of complexity and not necessarily a measure of difficulty. For instance, it may not be at all easy for a character to find somewhere to hole up during a lightning storm if he’s in the middle of a flat, featureless plain that extends for hundreds of yards, or miles, in every direction.   The most important precaution to take against being struck by lightning in the outdoors is to get rid of, and get away from, any metal armor, weapons, and equipment. If time permits, it is a good idea to scatter individual pieces of metal (the parts of a suit of armor, for instance) over an area at least several yards in diameter to minimize the possibility of lightning hitting the armor and gear. Heaping everything up in a pile for easier access later is asking for trouble, especially if the top of the pile is higher than any surrounding terrain.   Second, if solid cover is not available, get as low as possible, either by dropping flat on the ground or lying in a ditch or depression. Lightning is not immediately absorbed into the ground after it hits; the electrical force may travel some distance (up to several hundred yards, if the stroke is very powerful) along the ground before dissipating, and along its route it will seek out gullies, ruts, and other such low spots. Thus, someone lying in a ditch is not entirely safe, but this course of action is still better than presenting oneself as a target above ground level. (Contrary to popular belief, lightning does not travel from the clouds to the ground but rather in the opposite direction; even so, we tend to speak of lightning “hitting the ground” because of the visual impression created when a strike occurs.)   Even an apparently safe place, such as a rock overhang, is not necessarily the best place to be. If lightning strikes on a ridge above the overhang, it may travel downward and into the enclosure as described above. Still, an alcove of this sort is much more preferable than a more exposed position.   Taking cover under a lone tree is not a good course of action at all; if the tree is taller than the surrounding terrain, it is a prime target for lightning - and even if the electrical force of the lightning stroke does not travel down through the tree, a character is still vulnerable to damage from falling debris (at the DM’s discretion) if the tree is hit.   Standing beneath a thick cover of trees of equal height is perhaps the best precaution one can take against lightning in the outdoors when no better cover is available. Of course, if an enclosed structure is within running distance, that is the place to head for. If lightning hits the structure, the electrical charge will ground itself through the roof and walls. A structure with an earthen floor is the safest of all, since the ground provides additional insulation against any electricity that may leak through the structure.   The chance of a character being struck by lightning is a very small one, even considering the possibility of normal foolish behavior, such as standing out in the open while wearing a suit of plate mail. In contrast, abnormal foolish behavior is rushing to the only tall tree in sight, climbing to the top, and thrusting your sword toward the heavens. The suggestions that follow do not take abnormal behavior into account; the Dungeon Master is free to arbitrate such occurrences, and it is strongly recommended that if a character voluntarily and knowingly engages in such behavior, he be given exactly what he appears to want- the jolt to end all jolts.   Hail: A character caught out in the open during a hailstorm may suffer damage from being pelted by the rocklike clumps of ice, but a well-prepared or well-armored character can often avoid any difficulties. A character who is wearing splint mail, banded mail, or any other armor with a natural armor class of 4 or better can avoid damage entirely by taking the simple precaution of squatting or rolling into a ball and covering his head. (Of course, this makes the character a much easier target to hit in a combat situation.) A character can also protect himself by squatting or rolling into a ball and covering himself with a large shield. Partial or total protection may be afforded by draping a large skin or canvas over a couple of handy tree branches and taking refuge beneath this makeshift tent. Other means of protection may be devised, and the Dungeon Master should moderate the benefit (if any) of such attempts.   A character who is not suitably protected has a 50% chance of suffering damage on a round-by-round basis, depending on the type of armor he is wearing and the size of the hailstones   Flash Floods: When camping in the desert, especially, do not make the mistake of pitching a tent on the alluringly level bottom of a dry gulch or riverbed. A faraway storm can send a flash flood- roaring down such a declivity with hardly a moment's warning. Just keep to high ground and you'll be safe.   Tornadoes: Because of a tornado’s very small area of effect and its relatively high speed when moving at ground level, it is usually quite easy for a group of player characters to get out of the direct path of the funnel cloud -and this is definitely a case where discretion is the better part of valor.   If a character is somehow caught out in the open in the path of a tornado, he faces death in two forms. First, he will take 4d20 points of damage from being battered by whirling debris that is carried along by the tornado near ground level. Second, he will be lifted 10-60 feet into the air (d6 x lo), carried along for 100-600 yards, and then dropped from that height - suffering falling damage in addition to any damage caused by the debris.   Characters are more likely to be caught in the path of a tornado if it approaches them while they are inside a structure. If they are taking refuge inside a structure during the lightning storm thatnormally precedes and accompanies a tornado, there is a 1 in 6 chance (2 in 6 at night) that they will not notice an approaching tornado until it is too late to leave the structure and seek other shelter. If the tornado strikes the structure (which is entirely at the DM’s discretion) and the structure is destroyed or damaged, characters inside the structure will each take 3d10 points of damage (if the structure is destroyed) or 3d6 points of damage (if it is damaged) from falling and flying debris, and there is a 1 in 10 chance that a single character (determined at random) will be lifted into the air by the tornado, suffering effects as described above.   Cyclones, Hurricanes, and Typhoons: If characters are so unfortunate or unwise as to be caught in a hurricane, the best conditions they will have to operate in are as described on the bottom line of the Wind Velocity Effects Table. But things won’t stay this good for very long; as the storm moves in and first approaches and then reaches full intensity, it will be effectively impossible for characters to do anything except huddle in a shelter and wait for the storm’s fury to abate.   If no structure (natural or manmade) is available for a character to use, the best thing he can do is hollow out a space in the earth or sand, assuming that such terrain exists, and lie face-down in the depression. Of course, rain and wind will work continually to wear down the sides of the depression, so the area around the head and face must be frequently scooped out and kept clear of water and sediment. If no soft ground is available, the character should flatten out face-down on a rock face, preferably one that is slanted away from the direction of the wind and one that offers some cracks or protrusions to use as handholds and toeholds. A character who is not anchored or protected in at least some minimal fashion must make a Strength Check once per turn for the duration of the storm. Failure indicates that the character has been buffeted and blown across the ground, and he has a 50% chance of taking ld3 points of damage, either from the force of the storm itself or from incidental impact with debris.   Anyone who attempts to stand up or move during a hurricane must make a Strength Check to get to his feet and an additional Strength Check at the beginning of every round thereafter, with a die-roll modifier of +2, to remain erect. Failure indicates that he has been thrown to the ground and takes ld6 points of damage. If characters are lucky enough to find a cave along the seacoast or some other similar sturdy, natural shelter, they can take refuge there and wait out the storm in relative comfort and safety. A manmade shelter, other than one hewn out of solid rock, will be subject to structural damage from the storm; although such a structure will hold up for a while and may even withstand the hurricane, a significant chance exists that it will gradually become weakened and then abruptly collapse.
High winds
Gale: This is a very strong wind, ranging in velocity from 46 to 79 miles per hour. The basic effects are as described on the Wind Velocity Effectsfable. In addition, the Dungeon Master may wish to incorporate some aspects of the effects of a hurricane, especially if the wind velocity is in the upper part of the given range. A severe gale may be treated as a light hurricane for purposes of possible damage to structures. Also, the Dungeon Master may require a Strength Check every round (or every turn, depending on the severity of the wind) for characters who attempt to stand and move under such conditions. A character who is knocked off his feet by a gale-force wind should only take ld3, or perhaps as little as ld2, points of damage, instead of the ld6 points of damage that a hurricane wind will cause. However, if gale-force winds are accompanied by precipitation, the effects upon characters will be the same as for a light or normal hurricane, depending on the velocity of the wind and the intensity of the precipitation.   Sandstorm / Dust Storrn / Haboob: The greatest physical danger in a sandstorm or dust storm (hereafter referred to as a sandstorm) is the chance of damage to the eyes, with respiratory damage a close second.   Any character who does not take precautions to shield or cover his eyes during a sandstorm may be blinded (roll of 1 on ld6) or partially blinded (roll of 2 or 3 on ld6). This check is made once every three rounds for as long as the eyes remain unshielded. A partially blinded character will automatically become blinded three rounds later if his eyes remain unprotected and he does not receive aid from someone else. An opponent attacking a character blinded from a sandstorm does so at +4 “to hit” and damage with a melee weapon, or +4 “to hit” only with a missile weapon. An opponent attacking a character partially blinded from a sandstorm does so at +2 “to hit,” regardless of the weapon or attack mode, but receives no bonus to damage.   A blinded character, in this context, is not necessarily sightless; he can distinguish light and movement, but not with any great degree of acuity or accuracy. A blinded character cannot attack (or, at the DM’s option, he may be allowed to wield his weapon at a substantial penalty to hit and damage), and can move at no more than l/2 speed unless he is being led by another character. A partially blinded character cannot successfully attack in missile combat, attacks with a -2 penalty on all other attack rolls, and can move at no more than 2/3 speed unless he is being led by another character.   A character whose nose and mouth are unprotected during a sandstorm has a 1 in 6 chance per round of going into a choking fit. This does no damage initially, but for anyone who suffers a choking fit there is a 3 in 6 chance that it will continue and worsen in the following round, this time causing ld3 points of damage and forcing the character to take a -2 penalty on all attack rolls and saving throwsduring this round. On the third round, there is a 4 in 6 chance that the character will become fully disabled. He must make a Strength Check to remain on his feet, and if this check succeeds he still suffers a -4 penalty on all attack rolls and saving throws during this round. On the fourth round he will fall to the ground, go into convulsions, and begin to suffocate unless he receives aid.   Several means are available to assist the victim of a sandstorm, including spells that can alleviate or cure blindness or suffocation. Nonmagical means are covered here. Any character, including the victim himself, can aid a blinded or partially blinded victim by splashing water into the victim’s eyes; this will wash the foreign substance out of the eyes, and in 2-7 hours (ld6+1) thereafter the victim will be recovered. If the eyes are not washed out, a partially blinded victim will recover naturally in 12 hours. A blinded victim whose eyes are not washed out will recover to the point of partial blindness in 24 hours, but will require the aid of magic or a character with healing proficiency before his full vision is restored. In all of these cases, whether water is used or not, the victim’s eyes must be kept closed and tightly covered for the duration of the healing period. Any treatment will be totally ineffective if this requirement is not met.   Fallen snow that is whipped up by a strong wind and driven against characters also counts, and can cause partial blindness. When such conditions exist, any character whose eyes are not shielded from the driving snow has a 1 in 6 chance of suffering partial blindness (this check should be made every 3-5 rounds, depending on the wind velocity). This partial blindness is much less severe than that caused by a sandstorm: a victim will recover naturally in ld6 turns, provided that the eyes are kept shielded (but not necessarily closed) for that length of time. Nonmagical healing efforts will not hasten this recovery process.
River Crossing
In the wild, one cannot count on a handy bridge or access to boats when the need to cross a river arises. While magic such as fly or water walk can aid in the crossing of a river, at other times the traveler has no choice but to attempt to swim, unless the river is shallow enough to cross by wading. Fording a river in this way can be dangerous, especially when mounts or vehicles are involved.   When wading through moving water, a creature must succeed at a Strength check each round to avoid losing its footing and being dragged along by the current. The DC for this check depends on the relative depth of the water and the speed of the current, as outlined on the table below. Deeper water usually has a higher CR, as determined by the GM.   Attempting to ford a river with a vehicle is similarly difficult, but the vehicle’s driver must attempt a Profession (driver) check rather than a Strength check. Unless the vehicle was specifically designed to be able to travel in water, the driver takes a –5 penalty on this check. If the vehicle is being pulled by one or more creatures, each of those creatures must also succeed at a Strength check to avoid losing its footing, and failure by any creature pulling the vehicle also causes the vehicle to be carried along by the current.   A creature that gets carried along in this way is forced to swim in the water and is moved by the water’s current at the start of its turn each round, as per the normal rules for swimming in flowing water. As long as the creature remains in an area of water where it can reach the bottom, it can attempt a Strength check to catch itself as a full-round action (DC = the normal DC + 5). If a vehicle is carried along by the current, it moves downstream the appropriate distance each round based on the current’s speed, and unless it was specifically designed to be able to travel in water, it takes 4d6 points of damage each round it remains adrift in this fashion.   Some bodies of flowing water are rife with large rocks, logs, and other debris that can prove dangerous to those pulled into the current. In such conditions, a creature or vehicle being moved by the current at a rate of 60 feet per round or more takes 2d6 points of bludgeoning damage per round from such obstacles, plus an additional 1d6 points of damage for every 10 feet beyond 60 that the current moves per round.
Quagmires are where mud, decaying vegetation, and water are mixed in proportions not solid enough to support a person's weight- which present a significant hazard to anyone trying to cross them. If you should feel such an instability, try to reach solid land by running. If this is impossible, crawl out on your knees or stomach. There may be a nearby branch or bush to grab. Or a pack or coat may support your weight.   Quicksand: Sand suspended in water is similar to mire but offers less time to escape. You may be able to throw yourself full length immediately and either crawl or swim free. Try ducking under water to loosen your feet, digging around with the hands and quickly jettisoning footwear. Avoid sudden and abrupt motions. Rest but don't give up, for quicksand often occupies a hole no larger around than a sofa.
Mist or Fog: The “calmest” form of special weather, mist or fog is nevertheless not to be taken lightly. It will occur beginning either at sunrise (1-4 on ld6) or sunset (5-6 on ld6) and will last for a number of hours equal to the result of this die roll. Fog will be heavy whenever it occurs in a seacoast area or in an inland location adjacent to a body of water; in all other locations, it will be of moderate intensity. If precipitation occurs on the same day, the rain or snow will not fall while the fog condition persists, but it is likely (50% chance, or DM’s choice) that a period of precipitation will immediately follow or precede the fog (the former case for a daytime fog, the latter for a nighttime fog).    
Heat Wave: For the next 3-8 days (ld6 +2), starting with the day in question, the temperature will rise at the rate of 4 steps per day until it reaches a high point one step above the normal maximum temperature. Roll on the Day-to-Day Change Table as usual each day, but disregard the Temperature Change column for the duration of the heat wave. When the temperature rises to one step above the normal maximum, it will remain at that level for the duration of the heat wave. If the normal maximum temperature level is “Z” (high of 115, low of 85), the highest possible temperatures during the heat wave will be 10 degrees hotter (high of 125, low of 95), and the heat wave will only last for at most three days after the temperature rises to this level (counting the day on which the extra-high temperatures first occur). When the heat wave ends, the temperature will automatically fall to the normal maximum on the first day thereafter, and will fall even lower if the Day-to-Day Change Table roll is 7 or less.   Drought: The effects of this type of special weather are manifested primarily in a scarcity of sources of drinking water.   Forest Fires: In the woods fire danger can be detected by the following signs: (1) the air is dry and hot, often with a strong odor of pine pitch; (4) the sky is a hot brassy blue; (5) the voices of animals and birds are muted or silent. Anyone who finds themself in such a place should get out of it as fast as possible. When there is smoke in the air and animals are running and birds flying all in one direction,.he should dash for a river, lake, or wide-open space of considerable extent.
Volcanic Eruption
Magma churns beneath the earth’s surface throughout the world, and in places where there are weaknesses in the crust, it can erupt outward in violent conflagrations. Volcanic dangers such as lava, lava bombs, poisonous gas, and pyroclastic flows are covered on page 234 of the GameMastery Guide, but there are additional dangers that a volcano can present.   Earthquake: The force with which volcanoes erupt can shake the earth, so earthquakes are common during volcanic eruptions. Depending on the nature of the terrain, these disastrous events can cause any of the effects listed in the Earthquake section (see page 146): they can hinder movement, cause buildings to collapse, open fissures in the ground, and topple structures both large and small. They can also trigger tsunamis (GameMastery Guide 234).   Lahar: A lahar is a churning slurry of mud and debris created when intense heat melts the glaciers or snow atop a volcano. A lahar can travel hundreds of miles beyond the volcano, devastating everything in its path. Motion alone keeps a lahar in liquid form. When a lahar strikes a creature, it deals the damage listed in Table 4–8: Types of Lahars below (Reflex half, at the listed DC). For creatures caught in a flowing lahar, use the rules for being swept away in flowing water (Core Rulebook 432) with a DC 25 Swim check. Anyone trapped under a lahar cannot breathe and must attempt Constitution checks to avoid suffocation (Core Rulebook 445). Lahars can be hot or cool depending on the events that cause them. A hot lahar deals 2d6 points of fire damage per round to those trapped by it. As a lahar slows, it settles to the consistency of packed earth, entombing those trapped within or beneath. See the Cave-Ins and Collapses section on page 415 of the Core Rulebook for rules on digging out a buried creature.   Steam Vent: Major eruptions of steam or boiling water often precede an eruption and deal between 4d6 and 15d6 points of fire damage (Reflex half, DC = 10 + number of damage dice). The radius of such bursts is typically equal to 5 feet per damage die. Mild steam vents are as hot as saunas and have a sulfurous odor.   Volcanic Ash: Erupting volcanoes spew ash, which can obscure vision and cause creatures to choke as if it were heavy smoke (Core Rulebook 444). Prolonged contact with hot ash deals 1d6 points of fire damage per minute. Clouds of ash can linger in the atmosphere, darkening the sky for weeks or even months and leading to colder temperatures and prolonged winters. This combination of cold and lack of sunlight hurts crops, and it can cripple food supplies and lead to famines. On the ground, ash buildup creates difficult terrain—not only is it slippery, but it might conceal other hazards. In heavy eruptions, a blanket of ash several feet thick can eventually blanket the region downwind of the volcano. Over the long term, however, this volcanic ash becomes fertile soil.   Volcanic Lightning: Ash clouds can generate powerful lightning strikes. These strikes typically deal between 4d8 and 10d8 points of electricity damage and are unusually difficult to dodge (Reflex half, DC = 15 + number of damage dice).
Naturally occurring earthquakes result from seismic energy released along fault lines in a planet’s crust. Powerful magic, the release of a legendary monster, or the destruction of a powerful artifact might also result in an earthquake. Earthquakes range from those that are harmless and nearly undetectable to those that are catastrophic and cause widespread destruction and loss of life.The exact damage of an earthquake is subject to the GM’s discretion. Listed below are general guidelines to assist GMs in running earthquake events. The baseline used here assumes an earthquake of average strength. GMs should modify the values listed depending on the severity of the earthquake.   Earthquakes can have additional effects such as disrupting rivers, draining lakes and marshes, and even triggering tsunamis or volcanic events (Pathfinder RPG GameMastery Guide 234 and page 150 of this book). Earthquakes might cause widespread fires in urban areas or displace wildlife in wilderness environments. The additional effects should be determined by the GM but should match the strength and severity of the earthquake.   Collapse: Creatures in an enclosed space or underground during an earthquake are at risk of having the ceiling or structure collapse on them. If a structure collapses, each creature inside takes 8d6 points of damage (Reflex DC 15 half ) from the falling rubble and becomes pinned. A creature that takes cover (under furniture, for example) gains the normal bonus for cover on its Reflex save. A creature pinned beneath rubble takes 1d6 points of nonlethal damage per minute while pinned. If a pinned creature falls unconscious, each minute thereafter until it is freed or dies, it must succeed at a DC 15 Constitution check or take 1d6 points of lethal damage. Additional rules for cave-ins and collapses appear on page 415 of the Core Rulebook.   Falling Debris: Even creatures not in a structure are still at risk of falling debris, whether from a collapsing building nearby or a natural structure such as a cliff or mountain. Any creature caught in the area of falling debris suffers the collapse effects (see page 146), but it takes 4d6 points of damage at the time of collapse instead of 8d6.   Fissure: Earthquakes can open massive cracks and fissures in the ground. A creature near a fissure as it opens has a 25% chance of falling in unless it succeeds at a DC 20 Reflex save. Additionally, each creature standing in the area when a fissure opens must succeed at a DC 15 Reflex save or fall prone if it avoids falling into the fissure. Fissures are typically 1d4+1 � 10 feet deep, and creatures falling into one take the appropriate falling damage. There is also a 25% chance that surrounding debris also falls into the fissure. Creatures in the fissure when debris falls on them take additional damage from the falling debris. Surviving creatures that are not pinned can attempt to climb their way out.   Impaired Actions: The tremors of an earthquake impose a –8 penalty on Dexterity-based skill checks for creatures on the ground. Spellcasters on the ground must succeed at a concentration check (DC = 20 + the spell’s level) to cast a spell. To move, a creature must succeed at an Acrobatics check; the base DC of this Acrobatics check is 10, but particularly powerful earthquakes and any resulting difficult terrain can increase this DC.   Structures: Most wood or masonry buildings collapse during an earthquake. Structures built of stone or reinforced masonry take 100 points of damage that is not reduced by hardness. Large structures such as castles might not collapse outright, but certain features such as towers or entire sections of a wall might. Creatures caught in a structure that is destroyed suffer collapse effects (see page 146).
Severe Snowstorms: This is another type of special weather that isn’t as treacherous as it might seem, as long as characters are well prepared for it or are able to take appropriate precautions at the outset of the storm. In addition to what is described on the Temperature Effects Table and Wind Velocity Effects Table above, a severe snowstorm will affect visibility (see the section on Vision and Visibility) and may cause exposure damage in addition to possible damage from cold for a character who is unable to take precautions (see the following section).   Reflective Snow: Glittering fields of fresh snow can pose a danger to unprepared travelers during the daylight hours, as the sun reflecting from the fields of white can be dazzling or even blinding. Travelers through such areas risk having their eyes become sunburned—a condition known as snow blindness. A creature in an area of reflective snow is automatically dazzled, and for each hour it spends in such an area, it must succeed at a DC 15 Fortitude save or succumb to snow blindness, becoming blind for 24 hours. Wearing protective eye gear that reduces the amount of sunlight hitting the eyes negates the dazzled condition and the chance of developing snow blindness. A character can reduce the duration of snow blindness to 1d6 hours with a successful DC 20 Heal check as long as she keeps her eyes covered or wears protective eye gear. Spells such as remove blindness/deafness heal snow blindness immediately. Creatures that are particularly susceptible to bright light take a –4 penalty on saves to resist snow blindness. To a lesser extent, staring out over vast stretches of sunlit water or desert can have the same effects as staring at reflective snow, but the save to avoid blindness in this case is only DC 10.   Snowslides: The best way to survive a snowslide is to keep on top of the avalanche. This can be done with a swimming motion, especially the backstroke.
Frozen Surfaces: A frozen lake or river can prove a serious danger if characters misjudge the thickness of the ice. In the winter, wilderness travel is often easiest by walking on the surface of frozen streams. To minimize the risk, carry a long light pole horizontally. Then, if you plunge unexpectedly through the ice, the pole can serve as a bridge, both checking the descent and affording support. The pole can also be used to jab at suspicious portions ahead, such as those hidden beneath snow; with a successful DC 20 Survival check, a character can accurately gauge the amount of weight a given sheet of ice can support. Table 4–7: Thin Ice lists the maximum size creature or object that can be supported by ice. (A Fine creature or object can be supported by any thickness of ice.)   When a creature steps onto ice that is one category thinner than what could normally support its weight, the ice begins to creak and crack ominously—a warning that a creature can notice with a successful DC 10 Perception check. At the end of a round, if an area of ice is unable to support its load, it gives way on a result of 10 or less on a d20 roll. This roll takes a cumulative –4 penalty for each size category by which the creature exceeds the maximum size the ice can support. A creature that is prone is treated as one size category smaller than its actual size for the purpose of determining whether the ice can support it. Ice within 5 feet of a fresh break is fragile, and it is treated as one category thinner for the purpose of determining the maximum size creature it can support.   Candle Ice: Beware of candle ice, especially- or ice several feet thick which has decomposed into long vertical needles, among which a testing pole can be driven all the way through in a single jab. Candle ice is best shunned entirely.   Falling In: Suppose you do break. When ice gives way, a hole of a size equal to the creature’s space opens in the ice. A creature falling into the near-freezing water beneath the ice is treated as if it were in an area of extreme cold, and on the round it plunges into the water, it must also succeed at a DC 15 Swim check or be submerged beneath the water and trapped beneath the ice, unable to surface.   If you have a sheath knife, drive its point into solid ice and use it to roll yourself out and away. It may be necessary to break away thin ice by hand to reach a surface strong enough to hold your full weight. Then get as much of your arms as possible over the edge, bring your body as nearly horizontal as you can, perhaps with the help of a swimming motion made with the feet, throw a leg over, and roll to safety.   A creature trapped beneath the ice can attempt to break through with a Strength check (the break DC depends on the ice’s thickness, as indicated on Table 4–7), or it can attempt to swim to an opening in the ice (although unless the creature is able to see in the darkness beneath the ice, it might have trouble finding its way to where an opening is). A submerged creature that is adjacent to the edge of the break in the ice can attempt a DC 20 Climb check to pull itself out, although keep in mind that ice adjacent to a break is fragile and could shatter in turn.   Ice or Sleet Storms : As fearsome as it may seem, this type of precipitation does not normally cause damage to characters who are caught out in the open when it occurs, as long as the characters take simple precautions and as long as they keep moving. Exposed skin and lightly clothed parts of the body must be covered promptly, regardless of whether the characters are stationary or moving. Failure to do this will result in characters taking cold damage as described below in the section on Damage from Heat and Cold.   It is important to keep moving, if this is possible, because the body heat generated by physical exertion helps to offset the effects of ice buildup on a character’s clothing and forestall the possibility of damage from exposure (see the section on Damage from Heat and Cold). “Moving” does not necessarily mean forward movement; even simple calisthenics will suffice, if characters are unable or unwilling to travel. Unconscious or immobilized characters can be protected from icing up by simply shielding them with canvas, skins, or other characters’ bodies.   A character who keeps moving will not be hindered in terms of movement or dexterity by the accumulation of ice on his armor and clothing; the ice will not form around the joints in a suit of armor, for instance, as long as the joints are frequently moved.

Getting to the Adventuring


Movement & Travel

  For the purpose of determining overland movement rate, terrain is classified as either normal, rugged, or very rugged.  
Normal terrain includes areas such as flat plains; gently rolling hills; hard-surfaced desert; light forest (where it is easy to pick a path between trees and other vegetation and any well-kept path or roadway that passes through normal terrain or rugged terrain that is topographically consistent (does not change elevation frequently or abruptly).
Rugged terrain includes uneven ground (such as a flat plain strewn with boulders, which must be either negotiated or circumvented sharply sloping hills; soft-surfaced desert; moderate forest (where the path angles sharply and repeatedly around trees and other vegetation any normal terrain covered with 5 to 10 inches of snow; areas where several streams or rivers must be crossed (one every 3-4 hours) to maintain constant movement in one direction; and any well-kept path or roadway that passes through very rugged terrain.
Very Rugged
Very rugged terrain includes mountains; thick forest (where no path is apparent swamps and bogs; any normal terrain with more than 10 inches of snow cover; any rugged terrain with more than 5 inches of snow cover; and areas where rivers or streams must be crossed frequently (one every 2 hours or less) to maintain constant movement in one direction.   When taken into consideration along with a character’s or creature’s encumbrance value, these terrain definitions are important in determining movement rate, as described in the following sections.
  Large-scale movement considers each 1 of a character’s movement rate as the number of miles that can be traveled by walking at normal speed -faster than a stroll, slower than a trot- for one-half day (see Players Handbook, page 102). This assumes that one-half day is eight hours, and that the character in question is lightly encumbered and moving over rugged terrain. For example, such a character with a movement rate of 12” can travel 12 miles in eight hours, or 1112 miles per hour for any span of time less than eight hours. If a character attempts to move for more than eight hours without a prolonged rest period (at least one hour), he will move at 314 of his normal maximum speed for the next eight hours or any part of that time he spends traveling. Thus, after 16 hours of continual movement, a character with a 12” movement rate will have traveled 21 miles (12 miles in the first eight hours and 9 miles in the second eight hours).   If a character attempts to move for more than 16 hours without stopping to eat and rest, he will move at l13 of his normal maximum movement rate. Thus, a lightly encumbered character with a 12” movement rate who is traveling over rugged terrain can cover a total of 25 miles if he travels for 24 hours without stopping to rest. However, not resting may cause him to suffer other penalties; see the section on Fatigue and Exhaustion.  
Surfaces change constantly, and the change in surface angle and type drastically impacts travel speed- and sometimes even danger.  
Normal Surface
Normal surfaces have a relative abundance of handholds and footholds, but they are not so closely spaced as on rough surfaces, so that the character must plan his route more deliberately (and thus, move more slowly) when traversing such a surface. Smooth surfaces are not completely devoid of handholds and footholds, but such features are few and often far between. A climber must plan his route very carefully, and sometimes is forced to backtrack and take a different route if his original path leads to a “dead end” where no more usable handholds and footholds are in sight.
Rough Surface
Rough surfaces are those that are strewn with convenient deviations in the surface (protuberances, cracks, etc.) so that it is virtually impossible not to find a handhold or a foothold whenever a character attempts to move along the surface.
Gentle Slope
Gentle slopes have a tilt of at least 15 degrees but not more than 30 degrees. In the least extreme case, a gentle slope changes 2 feet in elevation for every 10 feet of horizontal distance measured on a line that cuts through the slope. In the most extreme case, the elevation changes 5 feet for every 10 feet of horizontal distance. (A slope of less than 15 degrees is not a slope at all, for the purpose of these rules, and can be moved across at the same speed as if it were flat terrain.)
Moderate Slope
Moderate slopes range from 31 degrees through 50 degrees. In the most extreme case, the elevation changes 12 feet for every 10 feet of horizontal distance.
Severe Slope
Severe slopes range from 51 degrees to 70 degrees. In the most extreme case, the elevation changes 35 feet for every 10 feet of horizontal distance.
Cliff refers to any slope of greater than 70 degrees. A cliff of 90 degrees, of course, is perpendicular to the ground from which it rises. It is possible for a cliff to rise at an angle greater than 90 degrees, in which case it is properly called an overhang, but this sort of cliff is not treated any differently for the purpose of these rules.
Ledges, found on cliff faces more often than not, are outcroppings where one layer of rock meets another and the lower layer protrudes farther away from the cliff face than the upper layer does. Most ledges are not more than three or four inches wide, but this is sufficient to offer a handhold or foothold for a character able to climb such a surface. Sometimes a ledge will protrude six inches or a foot away from the cliff face, providing enough width for a character to assume a stable standing position, but extreme protrusions of this sort are rare, and when they do occur there is always a possibility that the ledge itself is unstable and may give way under the full weight of a climber who has perched on it without also supporting himself with one or more other handholds or footholds.
Nonslippery surfaces are dry and solid and present no great peril to a climber other than the slant of the slope in question. However, some of the handholds and footholds in such a surface may be “false” - rocks or roots that come loose when they are pulled on, for instance. Thus, it is entirely possible for a character to fall on, or from, a nonslippery surface.
Slightly Slippery
Slightly slippery surfaces are moist or are composed of material that gives way easily under any significant weight or pressure- a grassy slope covered with dew or the moisture from a recent rain, or a surface with a thick covering of sand, loose dirt, or gravel.
Very Slippery
Slippery surfaces are thoroughly wet or coated with ice, snow, or some foreign substance (such as moss or lichens) that is either slippery in itself or tends to pull away from the surface when it is pressed against or pulled on.

Land Divisions

Regions are large geographic areas with strictly defined boundaries. These can be political borders, large ecosystem swaths, or anything of the sort, and have a base challenge rating determined by th overall exological makeup of the area; each region is subdivided into several territories to which exploration is generally contained.   Example Regions include:
Territories are small areas within a region which are typically sub-political entities of that region- but not often geological ones; each territory has a unique DC for exploration checks in order to earn Discovery Points, based on both the region's general challenge rating, as well as the more specific geographical terrain of the Territory. Finding them, however, isn't difficult. One merely has to ask the locals what territory they're in, or charter travel to a different territory.   Example Territories include:
An ecoregion is a region within a Region or Territory which shares several ecological and other biological factors across its expanse. Every Region or Territory may have several ecoregions within its borders, and may share the same ecoregion across multiple territories. They don't typically require Discovery Points to find, but it may require discovery points to recognize the signs necessary to navigate you from one into the next.   Example Ecoregions include:
A location is an adventure site or other point of interest within a territory. It could be something large like an ancient ruin, a dragon’s cave, or a druidic monument- or it can be something much smaller, such as a bit of hidden treasure, a portal to another plane, or anything else of note; each location requires a specific number of Discovery Points to find, based on its size and location.   Example Locations include:

Discovery Points

Explorers typically come to a new area to seek out specific resources or locations... Sometimes they know some and only need to find them. But other times the area remains largely unknown until they're stumbled across. In either case, before a location can be discovered, the party must first accumulate enough Discovery Points- an abstract measure of how thoroughly the party has explored a region.   As they explore, they'll naturally acrue discovery points through various checks and actions. The more points they acrue, the more locations and areas of discovery they unlock. These points are tied to the territory they're discovered in, however; they cannot be lost (even if the party leaves the area), but not can they be applied to any other region.  
Exploration Checks are typically Survival checks and are meant to determine how many discovery points they accumulate as they travel. Unusual territories may require checks with more specialized skills, however.
Players may attempt a spot check using Perception, instead of a typical exploration check, at disadvantage. This allows them to look for way signs signs that may indicate different points of interest, or locations.
Gazetteers, maps, research, rumors, and guides can grant bonus Discovery Points for a region- even before players ever visit it. Information isn't always reliable, however, and bad information can set a party back.
  Inclement weather such as heavy rain, fog and mist, and other natural phenomenon hampers exploration checks by providing disadvantage to each roll- either until the weather clears, or the players gain better ground (depending on the weather).  

Known vs Unknown

Targeted Search
If the PCs wish to seek out a location, they can do so by spending Discovery Points at the start of the day. If they are seeking a specific location that they know exists in the territory (typically having found clues to it in the form of way signs), they must spend a number of Discovery Points equal to the location’s discovery score—a number that determines how difficult that location is to find (with higher values representing locations that are more difficult to discover). If the PCs want to attempt to uncover an unknown location at random, they choose how many Discovery Points from their total that they want to spend. Once the points are spent, divide the total spent in half, then compare that result to the discovery scores of all the locations in the territory. If any of those locations have a discovery score lower than that total, the PCs discover one of those locations (chosen at random if more than one location is a potential discovery). If none of the locations have a discovery score lower than that total, the group recovers half the Discovery Points they spent, but the other half is lost. Once the party discovers a location, travel time to the site varies according to the GM’s discretion and the overall size of the territory.
General Exploration
The character spends the day exploring the territory. At the end of the day, the character attempts an exploration check against the territory’s DC. An exploration check is usually a Survival check, but in some unusual regions or circumstances, it could require another skill check. A character can always attempt an exploration check using the Perception skill, but doing so is more difficult since this represents a more generalized method of exploration, and the player attempting a Perception-based exploration check takes a –5 penalty on the roll as a result.   If the character succeeds at the exploration check, she earns 1 Discovery Point for the group, plus 1 additional point for every 5 points by which the result of the check exceeds the DC.   Failing the check by 5 or more reduces the group’s Discovery Point total by 1, plus 1 additional point for every additional 5 points by which she failed the check. Unless every character in the group is skilled at the territory’s exploration skill, it’s often prudent for one character to attempt the primary exploration check and for others to engage in other tasks or use the aid another action to improve the primary check’s result.   Careful Exploration: Some groups might choose to explore more slowly and methodically in order to make a more careful search. This allows the group to attempt one extra exploration check for each day spent in careful exploration, but it limits the total number of Discovery Points that can be gained to 1 (a character using careful exploration cannot earn additional Discovery Points by exceeding the DC by 5 or more). Typically, careful exploration can be performed only if the terrain is relatively clear and free of obstructions. The GM is free to limit this option if she believes that a slow search would not garner much benefit due to the terrain.
Finding Way signs
Way signs are events, objects, or terrain features that give a hint to find a location. Discovering a way sign, either by stumbling across one in the wild (such as by reaching a vantage point that gives an excellent view of the lay of the land, or by stumbling across an old road sign) or by researching a region beforehand (such as by consulting gazetteers, maps, or the rumor mill), can grant bonus Discovery Points or reveal the existence of previously unknown locations—but some way signs may be inaccurate or misleading.   Every way sign the characters uncover has an associated skill check with a DC determined by the complexity of the way sign. The amount of time necessary to interpret a given way sign varies; some checks can be attempted with an insignificant time expenditure (such as recalling information about a territory using a Knowledge skill), while some require significant time to complete (like translating ancient texts or visiting a nearby settlement to gather information), which takes away from time spent documenting, exploring, or seeking a location. On a successful skill check, the PCs earn Discovery Points for the territory to which the way sign is linked. A simple way sign grants 1 Discovery Point, a moderately complex way sign grants 3 Discovery Points, and a complex way sign grants 5 Discovery Points. However, misinterpreting a way sign can complicate exploration— if a PC fails a check to interpret a way sign by 5 or more, the misinformation he obtains reduces the PCs’ current Discovery Point total for that territory by 1d4 points. This can result in negative values. The PCs can attempt to interpret a way sign multiple times, but once they have successfully interpreted it, further attempts do not grant additional Discovery Points.
The character spends the day mapping the territory or recording its features in a gazetteer and can attempt one skill check for each day spent documenting. Creating a map requires one or more successful Profession (cartographer) checks, while creating a gazetteer requires one or more successful Linguistics checks (at the GM’s discretion, other skill checks can be used in place of these). The number of checks needed equals the territory’s CR, and the DC equals the territory’s exploration check DC. Once the character has succeeded at the required checks, she has created a detailed map or gazetteer of the region, which grants a +5 circumstance bonus on future exploration checks in that territory (bonuses from multiple maps or gazetteers don’t stack).   The successful completion of a map or gazetteer can generate a monetary reward if the PCs sell their hard work back in civilization. A complete map or gazetteer of a region that has never before been explored can be sold for a number of gold pieces equal to 100 × the territory’s CR; once a map or gazetteer of a region has been sold, further copies of a map or gazetteer of that region (regardless of whether the first item sold was a map or gazetteer) are generally worth only 10% of that value or less, depending on GM’s discretion and supply and demand

Success vs Failure

Unlike a weapon proficiency, the possession of a nonweapon proficiency does not always mean that the character can realize the benefits of having a certain skill. On some occasions, depending upon the particular proficiency or the circumstances surrounding the use of the proficiency, it is necessary for a character to make a successful Proficiency Check in order to be able to use the skill.   A Proficiency Check is accomplished in the same way as an Ability Check. The player rolls 1d20, applies modifiers (if any) to the result, and compares that number to the character’s score in the Appropriate Ability for the proficiency being used. If the modified die-roll result is less than or equal to the score of the Appropriate Ability, the Proficiency Check is successful. (In certain circumstances, the Dungeon Master will make a Proficiency Check die roll instead of the player, and he may or may not reveal to the player the result of the attempt. See the description of the direction sense proficiency for an example of this exception; the Dungeon Master may declare other exceptions of this sort when he deems it appropriate.)   Any unmodified die roll of 19 or 20 on a Proficiency Check indicates automatic failure, regardless of modifiers that would otherwise bring the result down into the range needed for success. Also, for the purpose of a Proficiency Check, any ability score greater than 18 is treated as a score of 18. This means that a character with an Appropriate Ability score of 18 or greater must always make a successful Proficiency Check without the aid of any beneficial modifiers, and that even a character with an Appropriate Ability score of 18 or greater has at least a 10% chance (2 in 20) of failing any Proficiency Check he attempts.  
Improving Proficiencies: When a character becomes eligible to fill an additional non-weapon proficiency slot gained at 3rd level or higher, the player may elect to improve the character’s ability in an existing proficiency instead of acquiring a new skill. If a proficiency slot is used to improve an existing proficiency, the character receives an automatic die-roll modifier of -2 on all subsequent Proficiency Checks (in effect increasing his Appropriate Ability score by 2 for purposes of a Proficiency Check).   If a player desires improvement beyond this first step, additional modifiers of -2 are attached for every additional proficiency slot filled in this fashion. It is possible for a character with improved proficiency in a certain skill to make a successful Proficiency Check with an unmodified die roll of 19. However, no matter how much a proficiency is improved, an unmodified die roll of 20 still represents automatic failure on a Proficiency Check. Example: A character with one step of improvement in a proficiency and an Appropriate Ability score of 17 can succeed on a Proficiency Check with a die roll of 19, since the -2 modifier for improvement would bring the result down to the range needed for success.   Add Proficiency Per Level shows the number of experience levels that must be passed through before the character is entitled to add more proficiencies. First level is included when counting levels; thus, a cleric must advance through 4th level and be ready to begin 5th level before adding new proficiencies, while an illusionist does not become eligible for new skills until he is ready to begin adventuring as a 7th-level character. The cleric gets his next new proficiencies after finishing 8th level, while the illusionist does not gain any new slots unti! he has advanced through 12th level.   A character is not obliged to fill every new proficiency slot immediately upon gaining it, although there is usually no good reason for delaying the choice (especially one involving a nonweapon proficiency slot). However, if the Dungeon Master allows a player to delay a proficiency choice, it is recommended that he not allow the slot to be filled during an adventure. (A character in a lake, about to go down for the third time, should not be able to suddenly obtain proficiency in swimming.)

While You're Out There ...


Food & Water

  Fortunately, food is easy to come by in most types of climate and terrain. Virtually any normal animal is edible (although some of them are not particularly tasty, to put it mildly), and most normal plants can be ingested and digested without harm - but poisonous types do exist, and care should always be taken to prevent illness or death from eating greenery that isn’t good for you.   In contrast, the availability of drinkable water varies greatly depending upon the terrain and climate. In some places, water can be located only after spending a lot of time and effort - if it can be found at all. In other areas, water is so abundant that characters tend to start thinking of it as a nuisance rather than a necessity.   A character should eat at least twice a day - one meal after a night’s rest and before undertaking any strenuous activity, and another meal at the end of a day of work andlor travel. For any character who misses a meal, the DM may see fit to assign a small but appropriate penalty (- 1 “to hit,” +1 modifier on Strength Checks or Constitution Checks) to apply from the time the meal should have been eaten until the next time the character takes nourishment. A character with below-average strength or constitution is especially susceptible to this temporary weakness caused by failing to maintain a consistent intake of food.   Of course, it is possible to consume more than the minimum daily requirement of food, either all in one meal or in more than one meal spaced throughout the day. However, overeating does not offer any significant benefits in game terms; a character’s physical condition does not improve, nor can he go for a longer time before eating again, just because he has stuffed himself.   It is also possible to conserve food by not always eating the minimum daily requirement. A character can “cheat” by as much as half of the recommended amount (eating only one-half pound of meat or one pound of vegetables or greenery per day) without immediately suffering adverse effects. However, he can only remain on this restricted diet and still perform normal activities for a number of days equal to 1’12 times his tolerance level (rounded down). After that much time has passed, the character will become weakened and will remain in that condition as long as he stays on half rations. All it takes to offset this condition is the consumption of a full ration during any single day, after which the character is back at full strength. A character who does not engage in any significant physical activity (strenuous or otherwise) can subsist on half rations indefinitely.  

Foraging, Salvaging, & Trophies

The exact time required to forage for supplies depends on the specific supplies desired and the type of terrain being searched- as does the DC of the skill check to successfully forage. As a general rule, a character who spends more than 8 hours per day foraging becomes fatigued.   When foraging, multiply the base time taken by the terrain’s “forage factor” based on terrain difficulty. Whether the terrain in question counts as standard, barren, or abundant depends on the type of terrain being searched, what is begin searched for, and the GM’s discretion (for example, a remote shoreline may qualify as abundant for the purposes of foraging for tools and weapons, but barren for the purposes of foraging for herbs). Rugged terrain includes all terrain with difficult physical obstacles (numerous steep mountainsides or cliffs, particularly dense undergrowth, or any other terrain where the searcher’s movement type is impeded), and its forage factor stacks with other forage factors for different types of terrain.   Alchemical Supplies and Material Components: Many alchemical supplies and material components can be found in the wilderness. You can forage enough supplies to approximate the contents of an alchemy crafting kit or a spell component pouch with a successful Survival check and 2d4 hours of effort, but the GM can rule that certain components simply aren’t available in an area (for example, bat guano cannot be foraged in terrain where no bats live). If a component is unavailable in the area but its cost remains negligible, you can create a rudimentary substitute component from your foraged supplies with a successful Craft (alchemy) or Spellcraft check and 1 hour of effort (DC = 15 + double the level of the extract or spell). An extract or spell cast with such an improvised substitute has a 20% chance of failure (in addition to any other chance of failure). Focus components or costly material components cannot be foraged.   Herbs: Foraging for specific herbs requires a Knowledge (nature) or Profession (herbalist) check and follows special rules. If you gather herbs while traveling, your overland speed is halved. Spending 8 hours doing nothing but gathering herbs from the area grants 1 additional yield of each herb you’re gathering.   When you start your day of herb gathering, you must declare which herb you are looking for. If you have 5 ranks of Profession (herbalist), you can search for two different types of herbs at once, and for each additional 5 ranks you have in this skill, you can search for one additional herb, to a maximum of 5 herbs at once if you have 20 ranks in Profession (herbalist).   Each herb listed below has a gather DC against which you must attempt a Profession (herbalist) or Knowledge (nature) check against each herb’s gather DC- or, if the terrain you are searching in is one of your favored terrains, you can attempt a Survival check instead. If the herb in question is present in the region you searched (this is always subject to the GM’s discretion), success results in a single yield of that herb. Success by 5 or more grants 1 extra yield. Success by 10 or more grants 2 extra yields; a single yield of herb weighs 1/10 of a pound unless otherwise noted in its yield section in the stats below.   In addition to determining whether a particular herb is available to gather in a region, the GM also determines how many attempts to gather that herb can be attempted in the region. Typically, a region can support 1d4 herb-gathering expeditions before the herbs must be given 2d6 months to regrow. A raw, unprepared herb spoils 24 hours after it is harvested. A prepared herb spoils after 1 month unless otherwise noted.   Repair Materials and Improvised Tools: A period of 1d6 hours and a successful Survival check are enough to forage rudimentary supplies to perform field repairs for damaged equipment when the proper tools and supplies are not available. On a successful check, a character gathers the equivalent of 2d6 gp in raw materials. She must still spend the time and attempt Craft or Spellcraft skill checks as normal to use these materials to repair an object, but she takes a –5 penalty on the check due to the foraged nature of the materials used. Repair materials gathered in this way cannot be sold.   If these gathered materials are instead used to craft improvised tools, a successful forage check gathers only the equivalent of 1d6 gp in raw materials. A Craft or Spellcraft check to repair an object or to craft an improvised tool with foraged supplies always fails on a natural 1.   Weapons: Functional clubs and quarterstaves can be foraged with 10 minutes of foraging in any area with trees or wood; in other regions, clubs and quarterstaves require 1d4 hours of searching and function as improvised weapons. At the GM’s discretion, other improvised weapons can be foraged.
Foraging is one way to gather resources in the wild, but you can also recycle or repurpose items and gear as well, salvaging materials from items you no longer need or are willing to sacrifice. You can’t salvage materials from artifacts, cursed items, or items you can’t destroy. Successfully salvaging an item requires a Craft or Spellcraft check and takes an amount of time as indicated in the specific type of salvage operation below.   Ammunition: You can use destroyed ammunition as raw materials for new ammunition. Five pieces of destroyed ammunition provide suitable material to create one new piece of ammunition using the normal crafting rules.   Potions: If you have the Brew Potion feat, you can combine natural catalysts with a potion to salvage it and create a different potion of a lower spell level. Salvaging a potion requires raw magic item materials (these can be salvaged from existing items, as detailed below). To salvage a potion, you must spend 1 hour per spell level of the original potion and then attempt a Craft (alchemy) or Spellcraft check with a DC equal to 15 + 3 × the original potion’s spell level. If you succeed, you transmute the original potion into a new potion of a spell at least one spell level lower, provided you know the spell in question (it need not be one you can currently cast). If you fail this check by 4 or less, the attempt fails and the catalyst is wasted, but the potion is unharmed. If you fail by 5 or more, the raw materials are lost and the original potion is ruined.Raw Crafting Materials: Anyone trained in the Craft skill can salvage raw materials from equipment for use in crafting or repair. You must carefully dismantle the item to be salvaged, resulting in the item’s destruction. If the item’s price is 1 gp or less, its materials can be salvaged with only 1 hour of work; otherwise it takes 8 hours to salvage crafting materials. A successful Craft check against the item’s creation DC + 5 yields raw materials worth one-quarter the item’s price. If you fail the Craft check by 4 or less, the item is destroyed but the materials can still be salvaged in a future attempt. If you fail the Craft check by 5 or more, the item is destroyed and the materials are ruined. Salvaged raw materials can be used to create or repair any item of the same materials and reduces the construction time by the proportion of the new item’s raw materials that are salvaged (minimum 8 hours).   Raw Magic Item Materials: Anyone with an item creation feat can salvage the raw materials from magic items for the creation of new ones or repair of existing ones. You must have the item creation feat required for that item to salvage its raw materials. Each attempt requires destroying a magic item and 8 hours of work. If the item’s price is 500 gp or less, you can salvage its materials in only 2 hours. A successful Craft or Spellcraft check with a DC equal to 10 + the item’s caster level yields raw materials worth two-thirds the creation cost of the destroyed item (one-third the market price). If you fail the skill check by 4 or less, the item is destroyed but the materials can still be salvaged in a future attempt. If you fail the skill check by 5 or more, the item is destroyed and the materials are ruined. Salvaged raw materials can be used to create or repair any item made of similar materials or that shares any of the creation requirements as the original. Including the majority of the materials allows you to automatically meet any construction requirements of a new item that the salvaged item also required and reduces the construction or repair time by the proportion of the new item’s construction materials that are salvaged (with the usual minimum creation time). Spellbooks and formula books can be salvaged for magic inks and paper usable in formula books, scrolls, and spellbooks.   Costly Spell Components: Anyone trained in Spellcraft can salvage costly material or focus spell components from magic items. Each attempt requires destroying the item and 8 hours of work. An item can be broken down into a powder that can be used in place of gemstone dust as a material component. Otherwise, the item must have a spell requiring the component in its construction requirements to salvage that component. A successful Spellcraft check with a DC equal to 10 + the item’s caster level yields materials usable in place of that spell component worth two-thirds the item’s creation cost (one-third its market price). If you fail the check by 4 or less, the item is destroyed without yielding spell components, but you can try to salvage them again. If you fail the check by 5 or more, the item is destroyed and the spell components are ruined.
Trophy Harvesting
Monetary treasure can be a rarity in the wild, but canny scavengers and survivalists know how to reap nature’s bounty. Eggs, furs, and ivory of exotic beasts are well-known commodities, but some have also studied the mystical sympathy between certain creatures and different forms of magic. To the right buyer, these components are valuable as more exotic materials.   At their most basic, trophies function as art objects. Whether an adventurer seeks to mount a dragon’s head on the wall of his home, craft a necklace from a claw harvested from every beast he has slain, or simply make new arrows from the teeth of a fallen foe, the process is much the same— the valuable commodity must first be harvested from the creature.   When a monster is defeated in combat, the process of identifying what portions of the creature can serve as a trophy and harvesting the trophy are somewhat abstracted— there’s no need to track the values for each part of every monster in the game once they’re gathered as trophies. In order to harvest and preserve a trophy from a kill, a character must attempt three checks: one to determine what parts of the creature are worth harvesting for a trophy, one to determine if she successfully harvests the trophy components without damaging or ruining them, and one to turn the components into a permanent trophy.   Identifying Trophies: To identify what portions of a creature have value as trophies, a character must succeed at a Knowledge check determined by the creature type, as normal. The DC for this check is equal to 15 + the creature’s CR. This examination takes 1 minute to perform.   Harvesting Trophy Components: Once a character identifies potential trophies, she must attempt a skill check to harvest the relevant components. This is typically either a Survival check (for external features, such as hide, horns, teeth, or the like) or a Heal check (for internal features, such as blood, internal organs, or sweat). The DC for this check is equal to 15 + the creature’s CR. Harvesting trophy components generally takes 10 minutes of work (at the GM’s discretion, this could be as much as 1 hour of work for creatures whose bodies are particularly difficult to work with).   Magical Affinities of Trophies: Certain creatures provide trophy components that, once processed into actual trophies, are exceptionally useful for the construction of alchemical or magic items. When used as raw materials for the crafting of alchemical or magic items, these trophies are worth more than their normal values for the purposes of calculating the total gp needed to craft the item (20% greater than normal).   Creating Trophies: Once trophy components are harvested, they generally remain viable for 24 hours before decay or spoilage ruins them. Application of gentle repose, oil of timelessness, or similar magic can extend this period of decay. In order to turn components harvested from a creature into a long-lasting trophy, a character must attempt a check with an appropriate Craft skill (the exact skill varies according to the nature of the trophy the character is creating, but it is usually one from the following list: alchemy, jewelry, leather, or taxidermy) to preserve the components and turn them into a trophy. The DC of this check is equal to 15 + the creature’s CR.   Recovery & Processing for Affinities, specifically: In order to preserve trophy components into a trophy usable for its magical affinities, a character must use a different skill than Craft to create the trophy. The specific skill required varies according to the creature, as detailed below. Creating a trophy to be used in this way is more difficult than creating one to simply be an art object: the DC to create a magical affinity trophy is equal to 20 + the creature’s CR. If a creature’s trophy components fall into multiple categories (such as an erinyes), the character can choose which of the associated skills to use to craft the trophy.   Selling Trophies: Once a trophy is created, it can be kept or sold. Generally, a trophy can be sold to any merchant for its full value, as if it were an art object, but at the GM’s discretion, certain trophies may require the PC to seek out black markets or specialized merchants to receive the full price. In some societies, selling certain trophies may be illegal or have other ramifications.A trophy’s value is determined by the CR of the creature from which it was harvested, as indicated on the following table. For all purposes related to harvesting trophies, the CR refers to a creature’s CR without any class levels (a CR 10 troll oracle would still count as a CR 5 source for any trophies it yields). Note that the value for bounties for defeating specific creatures should not be governed by these rules but should instead be determined by the GM as appropriate for the adventure. Creatures that do not have racial Hit Dice and whose CR is defined by class level generally do not provide valuable components for trophies.
At the GM’s discretion, the following additional rules can be applied to foraging.   Encounters while Foraging: If you use wandering monsters in your game, you should consider checking for a random encounter once per foraging expedition.   Exhausting Resources: At the GM’s discretion, a region can eventually be exhausted of supplies viable for foraging. Foraging while Traveling: You can forage while traveling, but doing so doubles the amount of time required to forage and halves your overall distance traveled. If you move through multiple types of terrain, use the least advantageous forage factor and forage DC of the terrains traveled through.   Group Foraging: Characters can always take the aid another action to improve a character’s skill check to forage; when they do so, they need not remain adjacent to the creature they are aiding.   Swift Foraging: A character can attempt to forage more quickly by increasing the required DC by 10; doing so cuts the time taken to forage in half.


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