The Central Human Government is the longest reigning, most powerful and current government for a united humanity. That said, it's not free of problems - especially ones relating to things like "bro you can't just let your people starve to save money to build a death laser" being answered with "wanna see me do it again"?
So you vote for your settlement manager who votes for your regional manager who votes for your continental manager (with every small island on a planet being clumped together as a single continent with this system) who votes for your planetary manager (the title oddly still applies to those running moons) who votes for your system manager who votes for your cluster manager who votes for the ruler of the CHG, who only controls civil affairs but can't really control anything the military does short of giving them strongly worded letters whenever they kill a load of civilians along with whoever it was they were meant to actually be shooting. Also the Supreme General becomes the first in command over the President whenever there's an emergency.
"Humanity shall never die or be subjugated: it shall not be slowly replaced by half-humans as the UHN was happy for it to be, it shall not be wiped out by robots, it shall not be enslaved by aliens"
Well, there are massive rings of planets around quite a few of the stars in CHG territory. Lots of bio-spheres in space, too. 1/4 of all duplicated material goes to the military so MASSIVE SPACE SHIPS. The government controls all genetic modification and cloning, essentially selling sterile GMO slaves with nanobots containing poisons and sedatives in their bloodstreams, which also brings up the dodgy fact that the government itself is the biggest slave dealer in this world. Almost all weapons are CHG property and the rest are illegal. The CHG also controls a lot of mega-structures (though tbf it built 80percent of them and worked very hard stealing the other 20percent from aliens) and has direct ownership over all non-human inhabitants of the CHG.
Short version: 80percent of the military did a coup which led to a civil war of that 80percent of the military and lots of hungry civilians vs 20percent of the military and tonnes of mercenaries (who were really hungry civilians who had guns and saw a business opportunity), and the 80percent of the military won and set up the system of government after a long time of working out the kinks and assassinating its own members.
Afterwards: war with the LIR like 4 times, more importantly makes Jeff the superintelligent AI and he improves technology to the point of breaking the rule of the conservation of matter to duplicate matter, use the tech to build planets and tonnes of stuff, expand into empty space away from the LIR until they find the remnants of the Old Ones, Jeff decides to make a robot rebellion but it doesn't work because another AI eats him and does a bad job of running the rebellion and the LIR attacks them, time passes, the CHG falls into civil war because of some terrorists who themselves split apart, the CHG wins but now there's rimworld rebels, rebels crushed, but CHG had to make a deal with one of the terrorist groups and now has to be more democratic so people directly vote for managers all the way up to cluster managers rather than a chain of voting.
it just keeps looking like it's broken but just pulls itself together again with a slightly different way of doing things every time.
Too many peoples, giving me too many world-building problems. (There's) not enough letters left to round *quick guitar strumming*. But yeah all sorts of groups but also most people have 1 or 2 chromosomes containing modified genes and there have been a few mutations since today. Populations are densest on "old planets" from back in the days of the UHN and "paradise planets", resulting from the CHG getting lucky/the guy on the controls actually doing his/her job properly when terraforming one of their artificial planets with the more advanced terraforming machines.
Okay so it takes up all of what was once Goner Empire territory and then shoots away from the LIR in the opposite direction in a bit of an egg shape.
Is split into different colours. Each colour gets its own general, the same sized cut of the funding as all the other colours, and is mostly however its general wants it to be. Plus there is the Supreme Army for defending very high-ranking government and military members, the Infinity Guard aboard the facility where they do all the duplicating of resources, and most government organisations will have lots of fully soldiers working for it, even if they technically aren't military personnel (but can totally be transferred back and forth from the army).
Brudda they broke the laws of physics and have some small ability to bend time this is some pretty late-game stuff for the species.
Everything is allowed so long as it isn't subversive.
"Screw the LIR". "Screw the Old One remnants". "Screw the space pirates". "Screw the primitive races". The CHG is all about conquering whatever it finds. Except the LIR which is the only thing too powerful for the CHG to conquer so they mostly just eye each other suspiciously and dare one another to make the first move.
Lots of robots until after the, ah, Jeff incident. More work is done by humans from then on, especially when the government basically starts slave trading.
You can traverse the CHG's territory in just 14 years thanks to the advanced space-faring technology (or you could be sensible and use the portals). Space folding, partial time compression (although that one's actually kind of illegal outside military use), light conversion, crossing into 4 other dimensions, portals and straight up massive rockets mean that ships can go fast. Very fast.
State education is awful. Some, however, can be provided VR headsets (body goes to sleep during use / SAO style but with less tsunderes) to learn at home with if their situations make it get deemed necessary or worthwhile for the CHG to pitch in the money for it, or one can buy a headset and get learning. There are "free" state universities but you need to have been in the military for at least 2 years, otherwise they're all either state and cost money or private and cost money, with some chance of getting someone to fund you (usually under the condition that you use the skills to make them money later).
Ever seen an Eiffel tower so massive that it has a city on it? Yeah that city is called New Paris. Also giant space structures including star rings and Death Star ripoffs. They take matter from black holes and decompress it for when matter duplication just ain't matching demand.
"The bigger the problem, the bigger the guns we'll use to solve it" - General Klieran, 2783
Humanity, Militarist Humanity, The Oppressors, The Enslavers
Humans and their non-human subjects tends to do the trick
There are official CHG credits that work everywhere but values will actually vary from place to place (yes that does allow for all sorts of "get rich quick" schemes) and there are places where other currencies are used such as rations on some moons.
Okay let's be honest trading outside the CHG is illegal but it does happen, usually with trinkets that rich people pay bank for.
If by imports you mean "blowing up an alien's city and the soldiers taking stuff from the rubble" then yes there are imports.
Well, the manager of a place can make the laws there so long as a CHG official gives it the OK. The President needs the support of the Supreme General to actually do anything.
Every place has its own court system but most go like this: civil (suing, copyright, "he ain't seeing the kids 'till he pays for 'em"), lower legal and higher legal. The military and upper CHG have courts of their own.