Ajanasyian

The main language of Mauretania and of the Aprica System, despite the Imperia's attempts to popularize either Lusitani or Shutyilzh as the main language of this system.
...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind...
i nizut ta yoss ta trum i but ta mjisy haw fot nchemtu
Pronunciation: /i ˈnizut ta jɔss ta trum i ɓut ta mʄisj haw fɔt ˈnʧɛmtu/
Ajanasyian word order: and stood he holding hat his and turned his face wet to the wind

Spelling & Phonology

Consonant inventory: b d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x z ð ŋ ɓ ɗ ɠ ɣ ɲ ʃ ʄ ʤ ʧ θ
↓Manner/Place→BilabialLabiodentalDentalAlveolarPalato-alveolarPalatalVelarUvularGlottal
Nasalmnɲŋ
Stopp bt dk gq
Implosiveɓɗʄɠ
Affricateʧ ʤ
Fricativef vθ ðs zʃx ɣh
Approximantj
Trillr
Lateral approximantl
 
Co-articulated phonemes
Vowel inventory: a i u ɔ ɛ
↓Manner/Place→Labial-velar
Approximantw
FrontBack
Highiu
Low-midɛɔ
Lowa
 

Syllable structure: (C)V

Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable


Spelling rules:
PronunciationSpelling
ɛe
ɔo
ɲny
ɓb
jy
ʄj
ɗd
ðdh
θth
ŋgng
ŋng'
ɠg
ʃsh
ɣgh
xkh
ʧch
nj

Grammar

Main word order: Verb Subject Object (Prepositional phrase). “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Opened Mary the door with a key.

Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned after the noun.

Adposition: prepositions


Nouns

Nouns have two cases:
  • Ergative is the doer of a verb, when the verb is done to something: dog bites man.
  • Absolutive is used in two scenarios: the doer of a verb when not done to something (dog bites), and the done-to of a verb (man bites dog).
ErgativeIf starts with vowel: Prefix mv-
Else: Prefix mvi-
mvimjasy /ˈmvimʄasj/ dog (doing the verb to something)
AbsolutiveNo affix
mjasy /mʄasj/ dog (doing the verb, but not to something)
 
SingularNo affix
mjasy /mʄasj/ dog
PluralNoun duplicated
mjasymjasy /ˈmʄasjmʄasj/ dogs

Articles

DefiniteIndefinite
Singularluw /luw/ the kre /krɛ/ a
Pluralyo /jɔ/ the ron /rɔn/ some
  Uses of definite article that differ from English:
  • Definite article can be omitted: ‘I am going to supermarket’
  • Not used for mass (uncountable) nouns: ‘Walking in the mud’ would always translate to ‘Walking in mud’.
  • Used for personal names in third person: ‘The Maria has left for school’
  Uses of indefinite article that differ from English:
  • Not used for non-specific countable nouns: non-specific means ‘I am looking for a (any) girl in a red dress’, whereas specific means ‘I am looking for a (particular) girl in a red dress’
  • Not used for non-specific mass (uncountable) nouns: non-specific means ‘Would you like some (any) tea?’ whereas specific means ‘Some tea (a specific amount) fell off the truck’
 

Pronouns

Ergative Absolutive
1st singular akh /ax/ I ble /ɓlɛ/ me, I
2nd singularop /ɔp/ you i /i/ you
3rd singular mascta /ta/ he, it ro /rɔ/ him, it
3rd singular femkra /kra/ she, it ngant /ŋgant/ her, it
1st pluralmbu /mbu/ we qi /qi/ us, we
2nd pluralnywo /ɲwɔ/ you all mval /mval/ you all
3rd pluralgha /ɣa/ they ku /ku/ them, they

Possessive Determiners

1st singularakh /ax/ my
2nd singularop /ɔp/ your
3rd singular mascta /ta/ his
3rd singular femkra /kra/ her
1st pluralmbu /mbu/ our
2nd pluralnywo /ɲwɔ/ your (pl)
3rd pluralgha /ɣa/ their
 

Verbs

PresentNo affix
zoll /zɔll/ learn
PastIf starts with vowel: Prefix nn-
Else: Prefix nnɛ-
nnezoll /ˈnnɛzɔll/ learned
Remote pastPrefix mʃu-
mshuzoll /ˈmʃuzɔll/ learned (long ago)
  Ajanasyian uses a standalone particle word for future tense:
FutureParticle before the verb: wi -
wi zoll /wi zɔll/ will learn

Perfect aspect

The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present.
Ajanasyian uses an affix for the perfect aspect:
PerfectPrefix fu-
fuzoll /ˈfuzɔll/ have learned

Numbers

Ajanasyian has a base-10 number system:
1 - mje
2 - chu
3 - mko
4 - mkass
5 - mta
6 - nitty
7 - zi
8 - mti
9 - du
10 - ja
Hundred - mfuw
Thousand - sarch

Derivational morphology

Adjective → adverb = If starts with vowel: Prefix aɗ-
Else: Prefix aɗi-

Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Prefix mpa-

Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix ms-
Else: Prefix msɔ-

Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Prefix θa-

Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If starts with vowel: Prefix s-
Else: Prefix sa-

Noun to verb = If starts with vowel: Prefix ɔnʤ-
Else: Prefix ɔnʤɔ-

Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Prefix ɛ-

Tending to = If starts with vowel: Prefix aʄ-
Else: Prefix aʄu-

Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix as-
Else: Prefix asɔ-

Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = Prefix ɔ-

One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Prefix ɗu-

Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Prefix ɔ-

Diminutive = If starts with vowel: Prefix ɲ-
Else: Prefix ɲa-

Augmentative = Prefix ɠa-

Dictionary

3058 Words.

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