Wendec Language in TAHARJIN'S FLAME | World Anvil
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Wendec

LANGUAGE FAMILY: TYRILAN   # SPEAKERS / WORLD RANKING: 2.98 M / #17   SPOKEN IN: Oralt - 2.6M / Ansal - 180K / Liij - 100K / Loy - 100K   PERIOD OF USE:   SCRIPT USED:   PARENT LANGUAGE:  
  "...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind..."   Translation: xhʰu xi cʰtʰy ˈcʰtʰaːuwy ˈfoi ˈrao xhʰu ˈeɫaː cʰtʰy ptuvh be   Pronunciation: ʧʰu xi kʰtʰiː ˈkʰtʰaːuwj ˈfoi ˈrao ʧʰu ˈeɫaː kʰtʰiː ptuːvh be     Wendec word order: and he his hat holding stood and the wind to his wet face turned  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: /b bˠ c d dʲ d̪ˠ f fʲ fˠ g h j k l lʲ m mʲ mˠ n nʲ n̪ˠ p pˠ s sˠ t tʲ t̪ˠ v vʲ vˠ w x z ð ŋ ɟ ɫ ɲ ɹ ɾ ɾʲ ɾˠ ʃ ʍ ʤ ʧ θ/  
↓Manner/Place→BilabialLabiodentalDentalAlveolarPalato-alveolarPalatalVelarGlottal
Nasalmʲ mˠ mn̪ˠnʲ nɲŋ
Stoppˠ p bˠ bt̪ˠ d̪ˠtʲ t dʲ dc ɟk g
Affricateʧ ʤ
Fricativefʲ fˠ f vˠ vʲ vθ ðsˠ s zʃxh
Approximantɹj
Tapɾˠ ɾʲ ɾ
Lateral approximantlʲ l
  Co-articulated phonemes  
↓Manner/Place→Labial-velarVelarized alveolar
Approximantʍ w
Lateral approximantɫ
  Vowel inventory: /aɪ aʊ eɪ iː oʊ uː æ ɑ ɑː ɔɪ ɔː ɛ ɛə ɜː ɪ ɪə ʊ ʊə ʌ/   Diphthongs: aɪ, aʊ, eɪ, oʊ, ɔɪ, ɛə, ɪə, ʊə  
FrontCentralBack
High
Near-highɪʊ
Low-midɛɜːʌ ɔː
Near-lowæ
Lowɑ ɑː
  Syllable structure: Custom defined
Stress pattern: No fixed stress
Word initial consonants: bˠ, c, dʲ, d̪ˠ, fʲ, fˠ, g, gɫ, h, hɾˠ, k, lʲ, mʲ, mˠ, mˠpˠ, nʲ, nʲʃ, n̪ˠ, n̪ˠt̪ˠ, pˠ, sˠ, sˠk, sˠt̪ˠ, tʲ, t̪ˠ, vʲ, vˠ, x, xt̪ˠ, ŋ, ɟ, ɫ, ɫt̪ˠ, ɲ, ɾʲ, ɾˠ, ɾˠsˠ, ɾˠɫ, ʃ, ʃtʲ
Mid-word consonants: b, bd, bj, bl, bm, bn, bs, bskj, bskɹ, bst, bstɹ, bt, bv, bz, bɹ, bɾ, bʤ, d, df, dg, dgɹ, dj, dkw, dl, dm, dn, ds, dv, dw, dɹ, dʃ, f, fj, fl, fspɹ, ft, ftl, ftw, fɹ, g, gj, gl, gm, gn, gz, gɹ, gʤ, h, j, k, kd, kf, kgɹ, kj, kl, km, kn, ks, ksf, ksk, kskj, kskl, kskw, ksm, ksp, kspl, kspɹ, kst, kstɹ, ksw, ksʧ, kt, ktf, ktl, ktɹ, kw, kz, kɹ, kʃ, kʧ, l, lb, ld, ldf, ldh, ldl, ldn, ldɹ, lf, lg, lgɹ, lj, lk, lkj, ll, lm, ln, lp, lpf, lpl, lptj, ls, lsh, lsʍ, lt, ltj, ltɹ, lv, lw, lð, lɹ, lʤ, lʧ, lθ, m, mb, mbl, mbɹ, mf, mfl, mft, mfɹ, mh, mj, ml, mn, mp, mpj, mpl, mpt, mptl, mpɹ, mpʃ, mpʧ, ms, mst, mt, mw, mz, mɹ, mʧ, mθ, n, nb, nbɹ, nd, ndj, ndl, ndm, ndɹ, nf, nfj, nfl, nfɹ, ng, ngɹ, nh, nj, nk, nkl, nkw, nkɹ, nl, nm, nn, npl, ns, nsf, nsj, nskɹ, nsl, nsm, nsp, nst, nstɹ, nt, ntl, ntm, ntɹ, nv, nw, nz, nzl, nzp, nɹ, nʃ, nʤ, nʤm, nʧ, nθj, p, pj, pl, pm, pt, pw, pɹ, pʃ, pʧ, s, sd, sf, sg, sgɹ, sj, sk, skj, skl, skɹ, sl, sm, sn, sp, spj, spl, st, stj, stl, stm, stw, stɹ, sw, sʧ, t, tb, tf, tj, tl, tm, tn, ts, tsm, tw, tɹ, v, vj, vl, vm, vn, vɹ, w, z, zb, zd, zj, zl, zm, ð, ðdɹ, ðst, ŋ, ŋg, ŋgj, ŋgl, ŋgw, ŋgɹ, ŋk, ŋkt, ŋkw, ŋkʃ, ŋkʧ, ŋl, ɹ, ɹb, ɹd, ɹf, ɹg, ɹk, ɹl, ɹm, ɹml, ɹn, ɹpl, ɹs, ɹsm, ɹt, ɹtl, ɹv, ɹʃ, ɹʤ, ɹʧ, ɹθw, ɾ, ʃ, ʃm, ʃn, ʤ, ʤm, ʤt, ʧ, ʧl, ʧm, θ, θf, θl, θɹ
Word final consonants: d, dh, l, lh, n, s, sh, vh, wg, wj, x, xh, xt, ɾ   Phonological changes (in order of application):  
  • n → ∅ / _s
  • k → x / V_t
  • t → ʃ / _{i,ı̃}
  • u → ∅ / a_
  Spelling rules:  
PronunciationSpelling
kwqu
ktcked / _#
kc / !_{ɪ,i,ɛ,e,s}
oʊC₁oC₁e
uːC₁uC₁e / _#
eɪC₁aC₁e / _#
ðth
θth
ʍwh
ŋgng
ŋknc
ŋng
ʧxh
ʃsh
ɹr
zs / _#
juu / C_
cccc
ck / _#
{t,d}ed / C_#
ov / _#
ou
ɔɪoi
ɪəeer
ɪy / _#
ɪi
jiyi
jy
y / _#
yyyi / _#
yi / #_#
ʌu
ee
o
ʊoo
ɛe
ɑ(ː)a
ttt / æ_#
lll / æ_#
sss / æ_#
zzz / æ_#
æa
ʤj / #_
ʤje / _#
ʤdj
ɜːur
ɔːor
u
quurquir
ere
 

Grammar

  Main word order: Subject (Prepositional phrase) Object Verb.
"Mary opened the door with a key" turns into Mary with a key the door opened.
Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.
Adposition: postpositions  

Nouns

  Nouns have four cases:
  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
  • Dative is the recipeint of something: man gives ball to dog.
NominativeNo affix ˈais /ˈais/ dog (doing the verb)
AccusativeSuffix -aixh aˈisaixh /aˈisaixh/ (verb done to) dog
GenitiveSuffix -aːxt ˈaisaːxed /ˈaisaːxt/ dogʼs
DativeSuffix -aun aˈisaun /aˈisaun/ to (the/a) dog
   
SingularNo affix aˈis /aˈis/ dog
PluralIf ends with vowel: Suffix -s Else: Suffix -es ˈaises /ˈaises/ dogs
 

Articles

 
DefiniteIndefinite
Singular /oɾ/ the xhoːsh /ʧoːsh/ a
Pluraltoi /toi/ the bɮau /bɮau/ some
 

Pronouns

 
NominativeAccusativeGenitiveDative
1st singularcʰaːun /kʰaːun/ I shoi /ʃoi/ me aːis /aːis/ mine ntʰu /ntʰu/ to me
2nd singularcʰtʰou /kʰtʰou/ you (masc) ptoː /ptoː/ you xhʰu /ʧʰuː/ yours oːl /oːl/ to you
3rd singular mascxi /xi/ he, it /aː/ him, it ntʰolh /ntʰolh/ his, its faolh /faolh/ to him, at it
3rd singular femsoː /soː/ she, it sau /sau/ her, it tʰu /tʰuː/ hers, its shae /ʃae/ to her, at it
1st pluralcʰtʰaːish /kʰtʰaːish/ we bau /bau/ us ʦaoxed /ʦaoxt/ ours su /suː/ to us
2nd pluralcʰaːush /kʰaːush/ you all you /jou/ you all ou /ou/ yours (pl) u /u/ to you all
3rd pluralcʰtʰaːuwg /kʰtʰaːuwg/ they aos /aos/ them oːwg /oːwg/ theirs ty /tiː/ to them
 

Possessive determiners

 
1st singularbau /bau/ my
2nd singulareewg /iːwg/ your
3rd singular masccʰtʰy /kʰtʰiː/ his
3rd singular femxheːwg /ʧeːwg/ her
1st pluralnʲaːd /nʲaːd/ our
2nd pluralbɮu /bɮuː/ your (pl)
3rd pluralaos /aos/ their
 

Verbs

 
PresentPastRemote past
1st singularIf ends with vowel: Suffix -l Else: Suffix -ail ʦʰiˈɾail /ʦʰiˈɾail/ (I) learn Suffix -a ʦʰiˈɾa /ʦʰiˈɾa/ (I) learned If ends with vowel: Suffix -wg Else: Suffix -oiwg ˈʦʰiɾoiwg /ˈʦʰiɾoiwg/ (I) learned (long ago)
2nd singularSuffix -ud ˈʦʰiɾud /ˈʦʰiɾud/ (you) learn If ends with vowel: Suffix -vh Else: Suffix -eːvh ʦʰiˈɾeːvh /ʦʰiˈɾeːvh/ (you) learned Suffix -aixh ˈʦʰiɾaixh /ˈʦʰiɾaixh/ (you) learned (long ago)
3rd singularSuffix -ewg ʦʰiˈɾewg /ʦʰiˈɾewg/ (he/she/it) learns Suffix -uɾ ˈʦʰiɾuɾ /ˈʦʰiɾuɾ/ (he/she/it) learned If ends with vowel: Suffix -dh Else: Suffix -aːdh ˈʦʰiɾaːdh /ˈʦʰiɾaːdh/ (he/she/it) learned (long ago)
1st pluralIf ends with vowel: Suffix -wj Else: Suffix -eːwj ˈʦʰiɾeːwy /ˈʦʰiɾeːwj/ (we) learn Suffix -aː ʦʰiˈɾaː /ʦʰiˈɾaː/ (we) learned If ends with vowel: Suffix -sh Else: Suffix -osh ˈʦʰiɾosh /ˈʦʰiɾosh/ (we) learned (long ago)
2nd pluralIf ends with vowel: Suffix -lh Else: Suffix -oːlh ˈʦʰiɾoːlh /ˈʦʰiɾoːlh/ (you all) learn If ends with vowel: Suffix -wj Else: Suffix -aiwj ˈʦʰiɾaiwy /ˈʦʰiɾaiwj/ (you all) learned If ends with vowel: Suffix -n Else: Suffix -iːn ˈʦʰiɾeen /ˈʦʰiɾiːn/ (you all) learned (long ago)
3rd pluralIf ends with vowel: Suffix -xt Else: Suffix -uːxt ʦʰiˈɾuxed /ʦʰiˈɾuːxt/ (they) learn Suffix -ix ʦʰiˈɾix /ʦʰiˈɾix/ (they) learned Suffix -uːd ˈʦʰiɾude /ˈʦʰiɾuːd/ (they) learned (long ago)
  Wendec uses a standalone particle word for future tense:
FutureParticle before the verb: ntʰoxt - ntʰoxed ʦʰiɾ /ntʰoxt ʦʰiɾ/ will learn
  Perfect aspect   The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present.   Wendec uses an affix for the perfect aspect:  
PerfectSuffix -ai ˈʦʰiɾai /ˈʦʰiɾai/ have learned
 

Numbers

  Wendec has a base-20 number system:   1 - ny
2 - ˈaidh
3 - gos
4 - ˈfhaːi
5 - bud
6 - ˈshae
7 - ʦʰo
8 - ya
9 - nʲuɾ
10 - xhʰaː
11 - ˈntʰet̪ˠeː
12 - ˈshael
13 - eeˈɲy
14 - maːˈuɲaˌe
15 - fhaːˈunʲaː
16 - ((sixteen))
17 - ˈxeɲu
18 - ˈeːt̪ˠoi
19 - xheːsh
20 - xhʰaˈibˠaˌe
21 - ny xhʰu ˈxhʰaiˌbˠae “one and twenty”
400 - ny ˈptai “one fourhundred”
401 - ny ptaˈi xhʰu ny “one fourhundred and one”
800 - aˈidh ptaˈi “two fourhundred”
8000 - ny ma “one eightthousand”  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = If ends with vowel: Suffix -lh Else: Suffix -eːlh
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Suffix -ai
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -lh Else: Suffix -aolh
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -n Else: Suffix -aːin
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɾ Else: Suffix -oiɾ
Noun to verb = Suffix -ilh
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Suffix -aːish
Tending to = Suffix -osh
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Suffix -uɾ
Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = Suffix -aːu
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Suffix -aːish
Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Suffix -uːxt
Diminutive = Suffix -ewj
Augmentative = Suffix -oi

Dictionary

4124 Words.

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