At the end of the second Indian campaign Alexandros III founded one final city, Alexandria Ganges. For a long time this city would be the most eastern large settlement of his empire. Although it was close to the ancient Mauryan capital of Pataliputra it would eventually grow into the seat of government it is today. The account below is written by the Greek historian Antipatros
OriginAfter his first campaign into India Alexandros III was set on returning there to march his armies to the end of the Ganges river. During his absence, however, a new dynasty rose under the leadership of Sandrakottos Maurya who had conquered the Nanda Empire. Before Alexandros could return his new opponent had conquered northern India and had even taken areas of the Indus region. What other choice did Alexandros have than to return. What followed was the largest war of Alexandros career and not without reason. In Sandrakottos Alexandros finally had a worthy opponent on the battlefield, something which could not be said for the cowardly Darius. But even Sandrakottos had to eventually accept defeat by the great Alexandros. He was pushed ever more further to the east until only the capital of Pataliputra remained. During the final siege Alexandros was heavily wounded but he luckily recovered from his injuries. Despite still not having regained his full strenght he went further east to see what was past the Ganges. But once more his illness acted up before he could continue, forcing him to return. On the furthest spot that he travelled he decided to found his final city, Alexandria Ganges.
Do not worry my friends as the grand city of my grandfather will be restored. It will rise once more and shine even brighter than before, a beacon to show what we can achieve by working together
GrowthThe nearby capital Pataliputra lost its importance when the new city was built. When Alexandros divided his empire into megas satrapes, Alexandria Ganges was to become the new center of the India region. And so over the years that followed most of the administrators and government were moved to the new city. Given its importance it did not take the city long to grow much larger than its older neighbour. Soon Alexandria Ganges became the pearl of the east just as Alexandria in Egypt had become a great hub in Egypt. New temples and buildings were constructed and over time the Indian and Greek cultures would mix creating a hybrid of styles. During this time trade flourished as well, especially with Gangaridai at the Ganges mouth, Kalinga and the Dravidian kingdoms to the south. How could this prosperous city know that these trade partners would try to bring about its downfall several decades later.
Indian RebellionsForty years after the city's founding a period of rebellion would ravage the Indian megas satrapes. Although the first uprisings were small in size the ones at a later date developed into full large scale conflicts. Despite the benefits they had enjoyed under Macedonian rule part of the population in India longed for independence. Crushing the rebellions seemed certain for the Greeks but alas things took a turn for the worst. Unexpectedly the kingdoms to the south decided to support these rebellious sentiments. As the situation escalated into war the Megas Satrapes was forced to call in the aid of megas basileus Alexandros IV. From the south Kalinga, Gangaridai and Ashmaka sent out their armies to help the rebels. At first it seemed that the war would go well but then everything changed. Despite Alexandros many successful campaigns an unimaginable fate befell him as he perished during the siege of the Kalingan capital, Tosali. The event sent a ripple through the Empire causing not only distress in India but also in the other territories. Had he not been killed the war would perhaps have been shorter but alas his death only increased the rebels efforts. The new Megas Basileus, Alexanderos V, had more difficulty in ending the war but eventually arose victories after many years of fighting. After the war even Kalinga and Gangaridai were added to the Indian territories, avenging at least in some way his father's death. As Alexandria Ganges had been sacked during the war Alexandros V made it a priority to be restored to its former glory. Besides that Alexandros made several changes to ease the tensions, such as granting freedom of religion and building many new temples. Even more surprisingly Alexandros himself converted to Graeco-Buddhism after spending so many years in India.
A new IndiaOnce more a war would change the course of India but in a way perhaps few foresaw. The spark this was the assassination of Alexandros V which led to a civil war between his two sons, Philippos IV and Perdikkas IV. Although Philippos was the older son his younger brother was supported by the Megas Satrapes of Egypt. When Philippos died in battle his family fled to India, a place they were well accepted thanks to their conversion to Graeco-Buddhism. Once they arrived their Philippos son, Pausanias II, declared the region independent, which would drag out the conflict longer than expected.
Though my uncle might hold the Macedonian throne, taken by murdering my father, he will never be my king. I plant my roots here now, my home, the India I grew to love since my early years. Here I shall continue my father's legacy. From this day on we will break loose of the oppressor and form our own nation.Alexandria Ganges was declared the capital of this new nation and Pausanias became its leader. After defending his new territories Pausanias successfully broke away from the Macadonian Empire and secured his nation's future. In the years to come the city would grow exponentially and become a capital worthy of the name.