Third Crusade Military Conflict in Fabula Mundi | World Anvil

Third Crusade

Pope Gregory VIII called for a new crusade when news reached him of the defeat of the Kingdom of Jerusalem by Salah ad-Din's Ayyubid Sultanate at the Battle of Hattin.   Many Christian leaders took the cross, including the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, King Philip of France, King Henry II of England and Richard the Lionheart, then Duke of Aquitaine.   There were many delays before the crusaders reached Outremer. King Henry II of England and King Philip of France were embroiled in a dispute over land. Henry died before he could fulfil his crusader vow.   In spring of 1190 Richard, now King of England, King Philip and Emperor Frederick were finally ready and their armies set out. Frederick downed crossing a river in Armenia in spring, and command of his army fell to his leading nobles, notably Leopold, Duke of Austria.   Richard and Philip travelled first to Sicily, where King Tancred had imprisoned his predecessor's queen, Richard's sister Joan of England. Richard took Messina and freed his sister. He then announced his engagement to Berengaria of Navarre, spurning his betrothal to Philip's sister Alys of France. This caused further friction between the two kings.   Philip sailed for Acre, then under prolongued siege. Richard's fleet was driven towards Cyprus during a storm, and several ships were wrecked. Emperor Isaac seized Richard's treasure; Richard conquered Cyprus in retaliation. He married Berengaria in Limassol, then joined Duke Leopold and King Philip at the Siege of Acre.   The crusaders were successful in relieving Acre, and in the Battle of Arsuf and the Battle of Jaffa, but ultimately failed in their stated objective of reconquering the city of Jerusalem.   Richard's actions caused friction with the other crusader leaders, but he and Salah ad-Din developed mutal respect. Richard even developed friendship with Salah ad-Din's brother Al-Adhil Saif ad-Din, and at one point suggested a marriage between Saif ad-Din and his sister Joan.   The Third Crusade ended with the Treaty of Jaffa in July 1191. This allowed Christian pilgrims to visit Jerusalem, but restricted the Crusader kingdoms to a handful of coastal cities.
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