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Ikarian language

Natively known as: ikarianon /ˈikaˌrianon/

  ...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind...
nit rawd ginyare mong inshit nasharare nit mong pobdati tum shakare eg pe
Pronunciation: /nit rɔd ˈgiɲare moŋ ˈinʃit ˈnaʃaˌrare nit moŋ ˈpobdati tum ˈʃakare eg pe/
Ikarian word order: and he stood his hat holding and his wet face turned the wind to  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: b d f g k l m n p r s t ŋ ɲ ʃ ʎ ʦ θ
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop p b t d k g
Affricate ʦ
Fricative f θ s ʃ
Trill r
Lateral approximant l ʎ
Vowel inventory: a e i o u ɔ ɛ
Front Back
High i u
High-mid e o
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Low a
Syllable structure: (C)V(C)
Stress pattern: Initial — stress is on the first syllable   Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
ɔ aw
ɛ
ŋ ng
ɲ ny
ʃ sh
ʎ y
ʦ ts
θ th

Grammar

  Main word order: Subject Object Verb (Prepositional phrase). “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Mary the door opened with a key.
Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.
Adposition: postpositions  

Nouns

  Nouns have six cases:
  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
  • Dative is the recipient of something: man gives ball to dog.
  • Locative is the location of something: man goes to town.
  • Ablative is movement away from something: man walks from town.
  Nouns form plural with separate plural word:
Plural Particle before the noun: ɔ -
aw gal /ɔ gal/ dogs
Nominative No affix
gal /gal/ dog (doing the verb)
Accusative If ends with vowel: Suffix -k
Else: Suffix -ok
galok /ˈgalok/ (verb done to) dog
Genitive If ends with vowel: Suffix -n
Else: Suffix -an
galan /ˈgalan/ dogʼs
Dative If ends with vowel: Suffix -p
Else: Suffix -ip
galip /ˈgalip/ to (the/a) dog
Locative Suffix -e
gale /ˈgale/ near/at/by (the/a) dog
Ablative If ends with vowel: Suffix -t
Else: Suffix -at
galat /ˈgalat/ from (the/a) dog
Definite No affix
gal /gal/ the dog
Indefinite Suffix -ɛ
galè /ˈgalɛ/ a dog

Articles

  Ikarian encodes definite article ‘the’, and indefinite article ‘a’ in noun affixes. See Noun section.
 

Pronouns

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Locative Ablative
1st singular pawp /pɔp/ I tep /tep/ me paw /pɔ/ mine rem /rem/ to me nyè /ɲɛ/ at me dèr /dɛr/ from me
2nd singular pa /pa/ you ten /ten/ you yu /ʎu/ yours a /a/ to you rè /rɛ/ at you ra /ra/ from you
3rd singular masc rawd /rɔd/ he, it nad /nad/ him, it mong /moŋ/ his, its bor /bor/ to him, at it mè /mɛ/ at him, at it to /to/ from him, from it
3rd singular fem pel /pel/ she, it the /θe/ her, it shè /ʃɛ/ hers, its pawb /pɔb/ to her, at it gèy /gɛʎ/ at her, at it do /do/ from her, from it
1st plural maw /mɔ/ we i /i/ us shaw /ʃɔ/ ours ga /ga/ to us nyawr /ɲɔr/ at us yo /ʎo/ from us
2nd plural yè /ʎɛ/ you all ya /ʎa/ you all tawny /tɔɲ/ yours (pl) nod /nod/ to you all oy /oʎ/ at you all nyer /ɲer/ from you all
3rd plural awk /ɔk/ they gè /gɛ/ them nyi /ɲi/ theirs be /be/ to them nik /nik/ at them pawny /pɔɲ/ from them

Possessive determiners

1st singular paw /pɔ/ my
2nd singular yu /ʎu/ your
3rd singular masc mong /moŋ/ his
3rd singular fem shè /ʃɛ/ her
1st plural shaw /ʃɔ/ our
2nd plural tawny /tɔɲ/ your (pl)
3rd plural nyi /ɲi/ their

Verbs

  Ikarian uses a standalone particle word for past tense:
Past Particle before the verb: me -
me thèyare /me ˈθɛʎare/ learned
Ikarian uses a standalone particle word for future tense:
Future Particle before the verb: mɔ -
maw thèyare /mɔ ˈθɛʎare/ will learn

Progressive aspect

  The ‘progressive’ aspect refers to actions that are happening at the time of speaking, such as I am learning.
Ikarian uses a standalone particle word for progressive:
Progressive Particle before the verb: ti -
ti thèyare /ti ˈθɛʎare/ is learning

Habitual aspect

  The ‘habitual’ aspect refers to actions that happen habitually, such as I learn (something new every day), as opposed to actions that happen once (I learned something).
Ikarian uses a standalone particle word for habitual:
Habitual Particle before the verb: bab -
bab thèyare /bab ˈθɛʎare/ learns

Perfect aspect

  The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present.
Ikarian uses an affix for the perfect aspect:
Perfect Reduplicate first part of first syllable
thèthèyare /ˈθɛθɛˌʎare/ have learned

Numbers

  Ikarian has a base-10 number system:   1 - uinon
2 - yud
3 - peny
4 - petor
5 - pompe
6 - tha
7 - seften
8 - uhto
9 - dab
10 - deken
Hundred - mu
Thousand - nuthmu  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = Suffix -u
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʎ
Else: Suffix -ɛʎ
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Suffix -ɛ
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -k
Else: Suffix -ik
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = Suffix -e
Noun to verb = Suffix -a
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Suffix -ɛ
Tending to = Suffix -aʎ
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ŋ
Else: Suffix -uŋ
Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = Suffix -ip
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -t
Else: Suffix -ot
Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Suffix -i
Diminutive = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɲ
Else: Suffix -iɲ
Augmentative = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʎ
Else: Suffix -eʎ      

A bit of history....

 
Ikarian belongs to the Davidovian family of languages, thus making it a relative of the Crorai, Seris, Kallian and Oronai languages. In fact it forms with own branch within the Davidovian family tree. It probably originated (alongside oronian) west of the Albine Mountains in the so called Yavana Culture. The two languages began to split around the beginning of the first millenium BP, and by 900-800 BP we can consider them as two separate languages. We can distinguish three "periods" or "phases" for the Ikarian language:
  • Archaic Ikarian (900-400 BP)
  • Classical Ikarian (400BP-200 AP)
  • Late Ikarian (200-460 AP)
Some here include also the Blatian language (as they think of it as the latst stage of the Ikarian Language).
 

Alphabet:

 
Ikarian is written in the so called Ikarian-Oronai script (which is also the most extended writting sustem in the continent of Teria
Successor Languages
Spoken by

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