Duke of Orleans Philippe Chartes d'Orleans (a.k.a. le Régent)
Reigned as regent for the young Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. He had several military careers, including battles in the War of Spanish Succession. During a hiatus between military assignments, Chartres studied natural science. Orléans had to grapple with the acute fiscal problems that had resulted from the costly wars of Louis XIV. In 1717 he entrusted the reform of French finances to a Scottish banker, John Law, whose innovations led to a financial disaster three years later that severely discredited Orléans’s regime.
The deaths in the royal family from 1711-1715 within three years of the Dauphin, two of his three sons, his daughter-in-law and the little Duke of Brittany led to widespread rumors that Orléans had poisoned them all to gain the throne.
On the death of his father in June 1701, Philippe inherited the dukedoms of Orléans. Throughout his life Philippe had many mistresses; his wife came to prefer living quietly at Saint-Cloud, the Palais-Royal, or her house at Bagnolet. His most famous mistress was arguably Marie-Thérèse de Parabère.
Philippe married Francoise Marie de Bourbon in 1685. The young couple, mismatched from the start, never grew to like each other, and soon the young Philippe gave his wife the nickname of Madame Lucifer. In spite of this, they had eight children together.
- Marie Isabella d'Orléans (17 December 1693 – 17 October 1694) died in infancy
- Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans (20 August 1695 – 21 July 1719)
- Louise Adélaïde d'Orléans (13 August 1698)
- Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans (20 October 1700)
- Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans (4 August 1703)
- Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans (11 December 1709)
- Philippine Élisabeth d'Orléans (18 December 1714)
- Louise Diane d'Orléans (27 June 1716)