Cemkarjy /ʟ̥ɜɱk'ɐʀɮɯ/ is a common Yytsuuri language.
The transliteration presented here maps closely to the Cemkarjy writing system, and therefore features some of its ideosyncrasies.
Note that all voiceless stops and affricates are always ejective.
|Stop||p /p'/ b /b/||t /t'/ d /d/||k /k'/||g /ɢ/|
|Nasal||m /ɱ/||n /n/|
|Fricative||f /f/ v /v/||s /s/ z /z/||h /x/|
|Lateral Fricative||l /ɬ/ j /ɮ/||c /ʟ̥/|
|Affricate||ts /t͜sʼ/ tl /t͜ɬ'/||kh /k͜xʼ/|
|Close||i /i/||y /ɯ/ u /u/|
|Mid||e /ɜ/||o /ɔ/|
Vowel CombinationWhen multiple vowels are adjacent, sounds may get modified or added according to the following table. Note that when three or more vowels are in sequence, modifications get applied from the last vowel to the first. Combinations not noted in the table do not occur in words. For example, the sequence yya may be transformed as: ɯɯɐ → ɯɯjɐ → ɯ͜ujɐ note that, if the transformation were applied in the opposite order, this would lead to the illegal combination /uɐ/.
PhonotacticsThe syllable structure of Cemkarjy is: (C) - V - (C) - (C) Where V may be any vowel or diphthong and C may be any consonant. In syllables with two consonants in the coda, they must use different methods of articulation, with lateral fricatives counting as the same methods as fricatives. Note that this is the structure after vowel transformations are applied.
Number MarkingCemkarjy nouns can be either implicit singular or implicit plural. To use a noun with a different number than its implied number, a suffix must be added according to the table below. The first suffix shown is used where allowed by the phonetic rules, otherwise the second variant is used.
|Singular (implicit plural)||-ol, -col|
|Plural (implicit singular)||-er, -ir|
VerbsIn the base form, all verbs end with a double vowel, which is pronounced as either a long vowel or a diphthong as explained in the phonology section.
Time ConjugationCemkarjy features five categories of time which verbs may be conjugated into:
- Distant Past: Describes events which happened a long time ago, typically classified as either before the birth of the speaker or as more than a typical (Yytsuuri) lifetime ago, never used for events the speaker has experienced.
- Timeless: Used in statements which do not happen in a specific timeframe, in most cases similar to a gnomic or habitual aspect.
ParticiplesEach temporal category also may form a participle, which are used in more advanced tenses.
NominalizationCemkarjy verbs feature multiple classes of nominalization:
- Action Nominalization: describes the action itself
- Actor Nominalization: describes something or someone that performs the action described by the verb
- Patient Nominalization: describes something or someone the action described by the verb is performed upon
- Instrument Nominalization: describes something used to perform the action described by the verb
- Effect Nominalization: describes the effect of the action described by the verb