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Jese'dar or Nukan

Natively known as: nukan /ˈnukan/

  ...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind...
un yun ruto hon kudo seto un hon nube agyuko hito uhen bin
Pronunciation: /un jun ˈɾuto hon ˈkudo ˈseto un hon ˈnube aˈgjuko ˈhito ˈuhen bin/
Jese'dar word order: and he stood hat his holding and his face wet turned the wind to  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: b d g h j k m n p s t w z ŋ ɾ
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g
Fricative s z h
Approximant j
Tap ɾ
Co-articulated phonemes
↓Manner/Place→ Labial-velar
Approximant w
Vowel inventory: a e i o u
Front Back
High i u
High-mid e o
Low a
Syllable structure: Custom defined
Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable   Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
j y
ŋ ng
ɾ r

Grammar

  Main word order: Subject Object Verb (Prepositional phrase). “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Mary the door opened with a key.
Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned after the noun.
Adposition: postpositions  

Nouns

  Nouns have three cases:
  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
Singular Plural
Nominative No affix
dahyupu /daˈhjupu/ dog (when doing the verb)
Suffix -o
dahyupuo /ˌdahjuˈpuo/ dogs (when doing the verb)
Accusative Suffix -un
dahyupuun /ˌdahjuˈpuun/ (verb done to) dog
If ends with vowel: Suffix -n
Else: Suffix -un
dahyupun /daˈhjupun/ (verb done to) dogs
Genitive If ends with vowel: Suffix -n
Else: Suffix -en
dahyupun /daˈhjupun/ dogʼs
Suffix -on
dahyupuon /ˌdahjuˈpuon/ dogsʼ

Articles

Definite Indefinite
Singular ro /ɾo/ the bun /bun/ a
Plural su /su/ the pun /pun/ some
Uses of definite article that differ from English:
  • Used to talk about countable nouns in general: English’s ‘I like cats’ would translate to ‘I like the cats’
  Uses of indefinite article that differ from English:
  • Not used for non-specific countable nouns: non-specific means ‘I am looking for a (any) girl in a red dress’, whereas specific means ‘I am looking for a (particular) girl in a red dress’
 

Pronouns

Nominative Accusative Genitive
1st singular un /un/ I su /su/ me ne /ne/ mine
2nd singular en /en/ you pu /pu/ you min /min/ yours
3rd singular masc yun /jun/ he, it sun /sun/ him, it hon /hon/ his, its
3rd singular fem ki /ki/ she, it gon /gon/ her, it so /so/ hers, its
1st plural yo /jo/ we ye /je/ us o /o/ ours
2nd plural a /a/ you all ka /ka/ you all na /na/ yours (pl)
3rd plural ba /ba/ they do /do/ them bun /bun/ theirs

Possessive determiners

1st singular ne /ne/ my
2nd singular min /min/ your
3rd singular masc hon /hon/ his
3rd singular fem so /so/ her
1st plural o /o/ our
2nd plural na /na/ your (pl)
3rd plural bun /bun/ their

Verbs

Present No affix
kiryento /kiˈɾjento/ learn
Past Suffix -o
kiryentoo /ˌkiɾjenˈtoo/ learned
Jese'dar uses a standalone particle word for future tense:
Future Particle before the verb: a -
a kiryento /a kiˈɾjento/ will learn

Imperfective aspect

  The ‘imperfective’ aspect refers to ongoing actions, such as I am learning and habitual actions, such as I learn (something new every day).
Jese'dar uses an affix for imperfective:
Imperfective Suffix -in
kiryentoin /ˌkiɾjenˈtoin/ learns/is learning

Numbers

  Jese'dar has a base-10 number system:   1 - ze
2 - wahyun
3 - pu
4 - ke
5 - gen
6 - nu
7 - run
8 - anso
9 - pin
10 - bo
11 - bo un ze “ten and one”
100 - moryeba “hundred”
101 - moryeba ze “hundred one”
200 - wahyun moryeba
1000 - makun “thousand”  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = If ends with vowel: Suffix -n
Else: Suffix -en
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Suffix -u
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -n
Else: Suffix -un
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Suffix -a
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -n
Else: Suffix -in
Noun to verb = Suffix -en
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Suffix -an
Tending to = Suffix -in
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Suffix -in
Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = Suffix -en
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -n
Else: Suffix -en
Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Suffix -un
Diminutive = Suffix -u
Augmentative = If ends with vowel: Suffix -n
Else: Suffix -un

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