Lilunga Language in TAHARJIN'S FLAME | World Anvil
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  "...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind..."   Translation: na gi ma vent ngamito ngangapa na bumik nell ma mihúlot pori ngatung   Pronunciation: na gi ma vent ngaˈmito nganˈgapa na ˈbumik nell ma miˈhylot ˈpori ˈngatung     Lilunga word order: and he his hat holding stood and the wind to his wet face turned  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: /b d g h k l m n p r s t v w/  
Stopp bt dk g
Lateral approximantl
  Co-articulated phonemes  
  Vowel inventory: /a e i o u y/  
Highi yu
  Syllable structure: Custom defined
Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable
Word initial consonants: b, d, g, h, k, l, m, mg, n, ng, p, r, s, t, v
Mid-word consonants: b, d, g, gh, gl, gp, gr, gs, gt, gtr, h, k, l, m, mp, mpl, n, nd, ng, nl, ns, nt, p, pm, r, rt, rv, s, sk, t, tb, tt, v, w
Word final consonants: N/A   Phonological changes (in order of application):  
  • i → ɐ / _m
  • v → u / V_V
  • w → ∅ / _o
  • [+nasal] → ŋ / _#
  • l → ɾ / V_V
  • s → ʤ / {i,u}_V
  • n → l / #_
  • h → ʔ / #_
  • h → ∅ / V_V
  • s → h / V_V
  • l → j / #_iC
  Spelling rules:  


  Main word order: Subject (Prepositional phrase) Object Verb.
"Mary opened the door with a key" turns into Mary with a key the door opened.
Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.
Adposition: postpositions  


  Nouns have four cases:
  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
  • Dative is the recipeint of something: man gives ball to dog.
NominativeNo affix mipúg /ˈmipyg/ dog (doing the verb)
AccusativeSuffix -ig mipúgig /miˈpygig/ (verb done to) dog
GenitiveIf starts with vowel: Prefix s- Else: Prefix si- simipúg /siˈmipyg/ dogʼs
DativeIf ends with vowel: Suffix -s Else: Suffix -es mipúges /miˈpyges/ to (the/a) dog
SingularIf ends with vowel: Suffix -g Else: Suffix -ag nútag /ˈnytag/ Suffix -a kaga /ˈkaga/
PluralPrefix i- inút /ˈinyt/ If ends with vowel: Suffix -ng Else: Suffix -ang kagang /ˈkagang/


Definitegi /gi/ the
Indefinitesird /sird/ a, some


1st singularmgú /mgy/ I nig /nig/ me mes /mes/ mine sang /sang/ to me
2nd singularnek /nek/ you (masc) ked /ked/ you mo /mo/ yours kung /kung/ to you
3rd singular mascgi /gi/ he, it ka /ka/ him, it mi /mi/ his, its an /an/ to him, at it
3rd singular fema /a/ she, it kú /ky/ her, it ill /ill/ hers, its na /na/ to her, at it
1st pluralbú /by/ we nid /nid/ us dang /dang/ ours ni /ni/ to us
2nd pluralholl /holl/ you all pong /pong/ you all búk /byk/ yours (pl) tud /tud/ to you all
3rd pluralngin /ngin/ they ho /ho/ them nga /nga/ theirs si /si/ to them

Possessive determiners

1st singulardeng /deng/ my
2nd singularda /da/ your
3rd singular mascma /ma/ his
3rd singular femgi /gi/ her
1st pluralna /na/ our
2nd pluraltun /tun/ your (pl)
3rd pluraldant /dant/ their


PresentNo affix ngaat /ˈngaat/ learn
PastSuffix -ang ngaatang /ngaˈatang/ learned
Remote pastIf ends with vowel: Suffix -m Else: Suffix -im ngaatim /ngaˈatim/ learned (long ago)
FutureIf starts with vowel: Prefix d- Else: Prefix da- dangaat /danˈgaat/ will learn
  Perfect aspect   The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present.   Lilunga uses an affix for the perfect aspect:  
PerfectIf ends with vowel: Suffix -n Else: Suffix -yn ngaatún /ngaˈatyn/ have learned


  Lilunga has a base-20 number system:   1 - veng
2 - awn
3 - ro
4 - ka
5 - búg
6 - hi
7 - laba
8 - nú
9 - nging
10 - ang
11 - sokan
12 - lalan
13 - kekepet
14 - nonúg
15 - nginúgren
16 - sagsúk
17 - mumad
18 - sapún
19 - nogreno
20 - nolis
21 - nolis na veng “twenty and one”
400 - veng podant “one fourhundred”
401 - veng podant veng “one fourhundred one”
800 - awn podant “two fourhundred”
8000 - veng mú “one eightthousand”  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = Prefix mu-
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Suffix -ong
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Prefix u-
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Suffix -o
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -l Else: Suffix -ol
Noun to verb = If ends with vowel: Suffix -n Else: Suffix -in
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Prefix e-
Tending to = If ends with vowel: Suffix -n Else: Suffix -en
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -d Else: Suffix -ad
Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = If starts with vowel: Prefix n- Else: Prefix no-
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ng Else: Suffix -ong
Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -rd Else: Suffix -urd
Diminutive = If ends with vowel: Suffix -k Else: Suffix -ik
Augmentative = Prefix i-


4438 Words.


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