Kumâian Language in Estia | World Anvil

Kumâian

Kumâian is a very old language of the Iɉen peoples. In modern day it has mostly fallen out of use in favor of Närgon or other tribal mixes and dialects except among a few tribes in the extreme north of Koljorn such as the people of Helɉarva.

 

Kumâian is an unusual language in that it's vocabulary is unlike more modern languages that have developed in Koljorn. Kumâian includes a lot of vocabulary around agriculture, seasons, crops and vegetations that are impossible to grow in the region due to the cold climate. Some point to this as evidence that Koljorn was not always such a frigid place while other theories present the Iɉen peoples having migrated from southern areas where such things were common.

 

Natively known as: Kumâian

  ...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind...
gr̀uv dyu chti tyinyu pyur wiwu gr̀uv kyani yi chti gur̀ trarfu plav
Pronunciation: /ɣɾuv dju ʧti tjiˈɲu pjur wiˈwu ɣɾuv kjaˈni ji ʧti ɣuɾ trarˈfu plav/
Kumâian word order: and he his hat holding stood and the wind to his wet face turned  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: b c d f h j k l m n p r t v w ɟ ɣ ɦ ɲ ɾ ʃ ʒ ʤ ʧ  
↓Manner/Place→BilabialLabiodentalAlveolarPalato-alveolarPalatalVelarGlottal
Nasalmnɲ
Stopp bt dc ɟk
Affricateʧ ʤ
Fricativef vʃ ʒɣh ɦ
Approximantj
Tapɾ
Trillr
Lateral approximantl
  Co-articulated phonemes  
↓Manner/Place→Labial-velar
Approximantw
  Vowel inventory: a i u  
FrontBack
Highiu
Lowa
  Syllable structure: Custom defined
Stress pattern: Ultimate — stress is on the last syllable   Spelling rules:  
PronunciationSpelling
cchy
ʧch
jy
ʤj
ɣg
ɦgh
ɲny
ʃsh
ʒz
ɟ
ɾ
 

Grammar

  Main word order: Subject (Prepositional phrase) Object Verb. “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Mary with a key the door opened.
Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.
Adposition: postpositions  

Nouns

  Nouns have five cases:
  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
  • Dative is the recipient of something: man gives ball to dog.
  • Locative is the location of something: man goes to town.
NominativeNo affix
br̀ukr̀un /bɾuˈkɾun/ dog (doing the verb)
AccusativePrefix ɲji-
nyibr̀ukr̀un /ɲibɾuˈkɾun/ (verb done to) dog
GenitivePrefix a-
abr̀ukr̀un /abɾuˈkɾun/ dogʼs
DativeIf starts with vowel: Prefix ɾ-
Else: Prefix ɾa-
r̀abr̀ukr̀un /ɾabɾuˈkɾun/ to (the/a) dog
LocativeIf starts with vowel: Prefix fr-
Else: Prefix fra-
frabr̀ukr̀un /frabɾuˈkɾun/ near/at/by (the/a) dog
 
SingularNo affix
br̀ukr̀un /bɾuˈkɾun/ dog
PluralPrefix mi-
mibr̀ukr̀un /mibɾuˈkɾun/ dogs
 

Articles

 
Definiteun /un/ the
Indefiniteliw /liw/ a, some
  Uses of definite article that differ from English:
  • Used for languages: ‘The English’
  • Used with place names: ‘The London’
  Uses of indefinite article that differ from English:
  • Not used for non-specific countable nouns: non-specific means ‘I am looking for a (any) girl in a red dress’, whereas specific means ‘I am looking for a (particular) girl in a red dress’
 

Pronouns

 
NominativeAccusativeGenitiveDativeLocative
1st singularkmi /kmi/ I tyu /tju/ me ka /ka/ mine hu /hu/ to me lu /lu/ at me
2nd singulardna /dna/ you ib /ib/ you j̀am /ɟam/ yours bri /bri/ to you knu /knu/ at you
3rd singular mascdyu /dju/ he, it fri /fri/ him, it a /a/ his, its nyuj /ɲuʤ/ to him, at it nyyaj̀ /ɲjaɟ/ at him, at it
3rd singular femwa /wa/ she, it fruh /fruh/ her, it kma /kma/ hers, its kni /kni/ to her, at it chlu /ʧlu/ at her, at it
1st pluralaj̀ /aɟ/ we chyi /ci/ us ma /ma/ ours daf /daf/ to us pyuj̀ /pjuɟ/ at us
2nd pluralgha /ɦa/ you all kagh /kaɦ/ you all fi /fi/ yours (pl) nyip /ɲip/ to you all nyu /ɲu/ at you all
3rd pluralpyu /pju/ they shpu /ʃpu/ them tu /tu/ theirs ku /ku/ to them ti /ti/ at them
 

Possessive determiners

 
1st singularnim /nim/ my
2nd singulardyi /dji/ your
3rd singular mascchti /ʧti/ his
3rd singular femvi /vi/ her
1st pluralpya /pja/ our
2nd pluralbru /bru/ your (pl)
3rd pluralnyyi /ɲji/ their
 

Verbs

 
PresentNo affix
jduf /ʤduf/ learn
PastPrefix a-
ajduf /aʤˈduf/ learned
Remote pastIf starts with vowel: Prefix ɾ-
Else: Prefix ɾi-
r̀ijduf /ɾiʤˈduf/ learned (long ago)
  Kumâian uses a standalone particle word for future tense:
FutureParticle before the verb: mu -
mu jduf /mu ʤduf/ will learn
 

Imperfective aspect

  The ‘imperfective’ aspect refers to ongoing actions, such as I am learning and habitual actions, such as I learn (something new every day).
Kumâian uses a standalone particle word for imperfective:  
ImperfectiveParticle before the verb: pja -
pya jduf /pja ʤduf/ learns/is learning
 

Numbers

  Kumâian has a base-10 number system:   1 - un
2 - di
3 - wi
4 - if
5 - mihli
6 - gr̀am
7 - da
8 - fr̀ichy
9 - ghah
10 - bra
Hundred - ghr̀ir̀
Thousand - char  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = Prefix fɾu-
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Prefix u-
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Prefix kri-
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Prefix ci-
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = Prefix bɾa-
Noun to verb = Prefix u-
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Prefix ʧlu-
Tending to = Prefix ʤda-
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix vn-
Else: Prefix vni-
Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = If starts with vowel: Prefix j-
Else: Prefix ja-
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Prefix ɾa-
Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Prefix dru-
Diminutive = Prefix u-
Augmentative = Prefix u-

Sentence Structure

Subject Object (Prepositional phrase) Verb.
“Mary opened the door with a key” becomes "Mary the door with a key opened."

Adjective Order

Adjectives are positioned before the noun.

Dictionary

2665 Words.
Spoken by

 

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