Afirian was given as the original language by God to the ensouled beings. Many kept it as an official language with few changes, but mankind lost the ability to genetically pass it on after the confusion of languages at the Tower of Babel. By this time many other languages had evolved and Afirian had almost been forgotten, but was still used as a lingua franca in most of the world, primarily what is now the Middle East. Without it, cultures were unable to easily communicate and needed to spend time learning other languages as we do today.
All letters are pronounced in all positions. There are no silent letters in any other these languages.
VowelsA vowel can be either long or short. A long vowel is marked by an acute accent or macron and is to be pronounced audibly longer than a short vowel.
Sometimes half of a diphthong is lengthened. This is to be pronounced almost as the normal long vowel the accent is connected to, with a touch of the beginning or ending letter.
Accents, Diacritics, and Special CharactersA macron over a vowel, such as Ā, denotes a long vowel.
A tilde above a vowel, such as Ã, Ẽ, or Õ, denotes long versions of Ă, Ĕ, and Ŏ.
A diaeresis above a vowel, such as Ä, indicates the stressed vowel.
As a remnant from Old English orthography, Afirian retains the usage of five symbols that do not exist in Modern English, Ææ, Œœ, Ðð, Þþ, ſ. These are detailed below, but they all have Modern English equivalents. Four of these are written in all instances of the sound occurring, and have both capital and lower case versions. The long S character, ſ, however, is only used as part of the digraph ſh, and only in lower case form.
StressIf no other notation is made, the stress falls on the third to last syllable; and on the first syllable in disyllabic words, with an additional minor stress on every second syllable before the main stress in longer words.
If a vowel is long or a diphthong, it takes the stress, ignoring the above rule.
If a vowel is followed by two consonants, such as -mm or -ld, but not digraphs like ſh, then the vowel takes the stress, ignoring all the above rules.
If a vowel is marked with a diaeresis, it takes the stress, ignoring all the above rules.
PronunciationMost letters are to be pronounced the same as in English. However, there are some that will need to be clarified.
C is to be pronounced as in ‘Cat’ at all times. Never as in ‘Circle’.
CH as in ‘Loch’, never as in ‘Church’.
DH or Ð ð as the TH in ‘This’. Note, the sound differs from that of ‘Thistle’.
G is a hard G in all positions. Always as in ‘Gone’, never as in ‘Giant’. Note this rule still applies even following N.
Ń ŋ is as the NG in ‘Sing’, except no G sound is present (unless, of course, it has a following G).
Q as in ‘Queen’. Unlike it often does in English, this is rarely used in conjunction with U. If it is, the U is to be pronounced as a vowel, not as part of the Q sound.
R, like in English, can have many different pronunciations, but is commonly either trilled or tapped.
Þ þ as the TH in ‘Thistle’.
X as the H sound in ‘Human’.
Y as in ‘Yacht’, except when used as a vowel.
A as in ‘Cat’.
Ă as in ‘Car’.
Æ æ as AY in ‘Hay’.
AU as OW in ‘How’. E as in ‘Pet’. Ĕ as U in ‘Further’. EO has no direct English equivalent. Sounds similar to an upper class English person pronouncing O in ‘So’. I as in ‘Pit’. O as in ‘On’. Ŏ as in ‘Port’. Œ œ as in ‘Low’. U as in ‘Put’. Y, when used as a vowel is to be pronounced as in German ‘Büch’.
All other combinations of consonants exist, but no more than two are allowed initially or centrally. Only one is allowed to end a word, usually a nasal.
Vowels can occur in sequence separated by a hyphen. In these cases, they to be pronounced as individual syllables, as opposed to the diphthongs.
All consonants featured in Afirian
|Plosive||p b||t d||k g|
|Tap or Flap||ɽ|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||s||ʃ||ç||x||h|
All vowels featured in Afirian
Afirian Case System
Noun declensions for all cases featured in Afirian
|Abessive||N(æ)-||Næŋcalauſa||Without the world|
|Ablative||M(e)-||Meŋcalauſa||Move away from the world|
|Accusative||T(o)-||Toŋcalauſa||[Earth is] the world|
|Adessive||G(e)-||Geŋcalauſa||On the world|
|Allative||P(e)-||Peŋcalauſa||Towards the world|
|Apudessive||E(l)-||Eŋcalauſa||Next to (or near) the world|
|Aversive||O(ſ)- -(r)u||Oŋcalauſaru||Aor fear) the world|
|Comitative||Æ(l)-||Æŋcalauſa||with the world|
|Dative||R(æ)-||Ræŋcalauſa||[I gave my life] for the world|
|Elative||D(e)-||Deŋcalauſa||Out of (or from) the world|
|Genitive||A(l)-||Aŋcalauſa||Belonging to the world|
|Inessive||D(e)- -(l)æ||Deŋcalauſalæ||In the world|
|Instrumental||T(æ)- -(l)æ||Tæŋcalauſalæ||By means of the world|
|Possessive||B(a)-||Baŋcalauſa||[The population] of the world|
|Subessive||O(r)- -(lc)a||Oŋcalauſalca||Below the world|
|Translative||L(æ)-||Læŋcalauſa||Turn into the world|
|Vocative||Ai(ð)-||Æŋcalauſa||[I speak to you,] O world|
Afirian has a relatively free word order due to the case system, however, it is mainly SOV with adjectives and adverbs coming after the words they modify. In addition, there are a number of post-positions rather than pre-positions.
All pronouns featured in Afirian.
Afirian does not distinguish between male and female pronouns due to divinity having no concept of gender. It does, however, distinguish between mortal and immortal/divine.
Afirian - English Vocabulary
|Alayanaþa interj.||[alaj’anaθa]||Hello, goodbye, general greeting.|
lit. 'God is good.'
|Amberai adj||['ambeɽɑɪ]||Beautiful. When suffixed with -al, it means 'Beautiful One' or 'Wondrous One'.|
|Anſi v.||['ansɪ]||to Like. When used along with weom, it can mean 'to Love' as used in English to refer to friends and family. However, it is never used to refer to a spouse or other partner. For that, use Shi-anſi.|
|Aſoŋŋon n.||[as’ɒŋɒn]||Wind, air|
|Calauſa n.||[kal’ausa]||Earth, world|
|Insi v.||['ɪnsɪ]||to Walk|
|Rampau adj.||[‘ɽampau]||Big, great|
|Weom adv.||[wium]||Really, very. Often used to emphasise what is being said.|
|Þruſi v.||['θɽusɪ]||to Begin|
|Þulgi v.||[‘θulgɪ]||to Give|