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Grazu

Natively known as: Gr̈äẓu /ˈgʀɑʐu/

  ...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind...
dzhdaï thï vrelm yeï dnam dväng dzhdaï dwaï dnam hodd dhïyr̀ hunth arv

Pronunciation
: /dʒdaɪ thɪ vrɛɹm jeɪ dnæm dvɑng dʒdaɪ dwaɪ dnæm hʊdd ðɪjɾ hunθ ærv/
Grazu word order
: and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind   This is the language of the Garruw. Since they are capable of flying quickly and for long distances, there are less variations based on geography. Even dialectic differences are more limited than it would be for other species.   When spoken by a Garruw, it should sound like a low hum in the background of every word.  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: /b d f g h j m n r t v w z ð ɹ ɾ ʀ ʍ ʐ ʒ ʤ θ/
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop b t d g
Affricate ʤ
Fricative f v θ ð z ʒ ʐ h
Approximant ɹ j
Tap ɾ
Trill r ʀ
Co-articulated phonemes
↓Manner/Place→ Labio-velar
Approximant ʍ w
Vowel inventory: /aɪ aʊ eɪ i u æ ɑ ɔɪ ɛ ɪ ʊ ʌ/   Diphthongs: aɪ, aʊ, eɪ, ɔɪ ?
Front Back
High i u
Near-high ɪ ʊ
Low-mid ɛ ʌ
Near-low æ
Low ɑ
Syllable structure: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) ?
Stress pattern
: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable ?
Word initial consonants
: b, bw, d, dn, dv, dvj, dw, dz, dɹ, dʀ, dʒ, dʒd, fɹ, fʀ, g, gr, gwn, gwr, gɹ, gɾ, h, hj, j, m, mb, md, mj, n, nd, rj, t, th, tj, tm, tv, tɹ, tʀ, v, vj, vr, vɾ, w, zj, ð, ɹ, ɾ, ʀ, ʐ, ʒ, ʒw, ʤ, ʤj, θ
Mid-word consonants
: b, bb, bd, bdʒ, bj, bm, bn, br, bt, bvj, bw, bʤ, d, db, dd, ddʒ, df, dg, dgɹ, dm, dt, dw, dɹ, dɾ, dʒj, dʒm, f, fd, ff, fg, fj, fn, ft, ftr, ftw, fɹ, g, gb, gd, gdʒ, gh, gj, gn, gt, gtt, gv, gɹ, gʐ, h, hr, hw, j, jb, jdn, jf, jg, jj, jr, jv, jvj, jz, jð, m, mbj, mbr, mbɹ, mbʀ, mdʒ, mf, mft, mfɹ, mgw, mj, mnd, mng, mr, mz, mɾ, mʤ, n, nb, nbɹ, ndb, ndf, ndj, ndm, ndn, ndr, ndt, ndz, ndɹ, ndʒ, nf, nfj, nfɹ, ng, ngj, ngr, ngw, ngz, ngɹ, ngʀ, nh, nmj, nn, nnj, nr, nt, ntb, ntf, nth, ntj, ntm, ntr, ntv, ntw, ntɹ, nð, nɹ, nɾ, nʐ, nʒ, nʤm, nθj, nθɾ, r, rb, rbr, rd, rdn, rf, rg, rh, rr, rt, rtn, rtr, rtv, rw, rʐ, rʐd, rʤ, t, td, th, tj, tm, tn, tr, tth, ttr, tv, tw, tʀ, v, vb, vj, vɾ, w, wb, wg, wm, wtɾ, wv, wð, wʤ, z, zb, zdv, zdʒ, zg, zj, zm, zn, zr, zvr, zw, zz, ð, ðdɹ, ðɾ, ɹ, ɹb, ɹd, ɹdʒ, ɹf, ɹg, ɹn, ɹnf, ɹnj, ɹt, ɹtf, ɹtj, ɹtm, ɹw, ɹð, ɹʤ, ɹθw, ɾ, ɾdʒ, ɾf, ɾh, ɾj, ɾm, ɾt, ɾv, ɾz, ɾʒ, ɾʤ, ʀ, ʍ, ʐ, ʐb, ʐd, ʐn, ʒ, ʒd, ʒj, ʤ, ʤt, θ, θf, θm, θw
Word final consonants
: b, bb, d, dd, f, ft, fθ, g, gg, j, jd, jf, jɾ, m, md, mf, mz, n, nd, ndd, ndz, ndʒ, nf, ng, nt, ntr, nv, nz, nθ, r, rb, rd, rn, rr, rv, t, tt, v, vz, w, z, zd, zv, ðd, ɹbd, ɹdz, ɹdʒ, ɹf, ɹm, ɹθ, ɾ, ɾb, ɾg, ɾt, ʀ, ʍ, ʐ, ʒ, ʤ   Phonological changes (in order of application): ?  
  • t → l / V_V
  • d → Ø / V_{i,j}
  • z → d / V_
  • m → n / _i
  Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
ie
ou
dz
ay
j y
æ a
ð dh
ɑ
ɔɪ oi
ɛ e
ɪ
ɹ l
ɾ
ʀ
ʊ o
ʌ
ʍ hw
ʐ
ʒ zh
ʤ j
θ th

Grammar

  Main word order: Subject-Verb-Object-Oblique. "Mary opened the door with a key" turns into Mary opened the door with a key.
Adjective order
: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.
Adposition
: prepositions ?  

Nouns

 

Definite

Singular Plural
Masculine If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʀ Else: Suffix -uʀ avzur̈ /ˈævzuʀ/ the man If ends with vowel: Suffix -rb Else: Suffix -ɛrb avzerb /ˈævzɛrb/ the men
Feminine If ends with vowel: Suffix -jðɑ Else: Suffix -ɑjðɑ thäyr̀äydhä /θɑˈjɾɑjðɑ/ the woman If ends with vowel: Suffix -zdvɔɪ Else: Suffix -uzdvɔɪ thäyr̀uzdvɔï /θɑˈjɾuzdvɔɪ/ the women
Neuter Suffix -ʊvz emzovz /ˈɛmzʊvz/ the dog If ends with vowel: Suffix -ttrɪ Else: Suffix -ɛttrɪ emzettrï /ɛmˈzɛttrɪ/ the dogs

Indefinite

Singular Plural
Masculine Suffix -ʌ avzü /ˈævzʌ/ a man Suffix -aɪ avzaï /ˈævzaɪ/ some men
Feminine If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɾmæ Else: Suffix -ɑɾmæ thäyr̀är̀ma /θɑˈjɾɑɾmæ/ a woman Suffix -ɛrn thäyr̀ern /ˈθɑjɾɛrn/ some women
Neuter Suffix -ʊ emzo /ˈɛmzʊ/ a dog If ends with vowel: Suffix -nfji Else: Suffix -ɔɪnfji emzɔïnfyi /ɛmˈzɔɪnfji/ some dogs

Articles

  Grazu encodes definite article ‘the’, and indefinite article ‘a’ in noun affixes. See Noun section.  

Pronouns

1st singular r̈ü /ʀʌ/ I, me, mine
2nd singular wä /wɑ/ you, yours
3rd singular masc thï /thɪ/ he, him, his
3rd singular fem vaï /vaɪ/ she, her, hers
3rd singular neut gigg /gigg/ it, its
1st plural yɔïr̈ /jɔɪʀ/ we, us, ours
2nd plural bä /bɑ/ you (all), yours
3rd plural masc i /i/ they, them, theirs
3rd plural fem duyr̀ /dujɾ/ they, them, theirs
3rd plural neut thïft /thɪft/ they, them, theirs

Possessive determiners

1st singular a /æ/ my
2nd singular yɔïẓ /jɔɪʐ/ your
3rd singular masc dnam /dnæm/ his
3rd singular fem äz /ɑz/ her
3rd singular neut glä /gɹɑ/ its
1st plural ẓaolm /ʐaʊɹm/ our
2nd plural r̀i /ɾi/ your
3rd plural masc ba /bæ/ their
3rd plural fem jyemz /ʤjɛmz/ their
3rd plural neut wä /wɑ/ their

Verbs

1st singular If ends with vowel: Suffix -t Else: Suffix -ʌt tr̈ibbüt /ˈtʀibbʌt/
2nd singular Suffix -ɛ tr̈ibbe /ˈtʀibbɛ/
3rd singular masc Suffix -ɪmd tr̈ibbïmd /ˈtʀibbɪmd/
3rd singular fem Suffix -æ tr̈ibba /ˈtʀibbæ/
3rd singular neut Suffix -ɑ tr̈ibbä /ˈtʀibbɑ/
1st plural If ends with vowel: Suffix -r Else: Suffix -ɑr tr̈ibbär /ˈtʀibbɑr/
2nd plural Suffix -ijɾ tr̈ibbiyr̀ /ˈtʀibbijɾ/
3rd plural masc If ends with vowel: Suffix -ðdɹæ Else: Suffix -ɔɪðdɹæ tr̈ibbɔïdhdla /tʀibˈbɔɪðdɹæ/
3rd plural fem Suffix -ʊʐ tr̈ibboẓ /ˈtʀibbʊʐ/
3rd plural neut If ends with vowel: Suffix -nz Else: Suffix -inz tr̈ibbinz /ˈtʀibbinz/
Grazu uses a standalone particle word for past tense:
Past naor̀g /naʊɾg/ past particle
Grazu uses a standalone particle word for future tense:
Future mba /mbæ/ will

Perfect aspect

  The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present. Grazu uses the word for ‘finish’ vaïrd for the perfect aspect.  

Numbers

  Grazu has a base-10 number system:   1 - myindz
2 - zhenv
3 - leïyf
4 - ho
5 - gimo
6 - zhev
7 - aw
8 - ang
9 - mbard
10 - be
11 - bemyindz “ten-one”
100 - mi “hundred”
101 - mi dzhdaï myindz “hundred and one”
200 - zhenv mi
1000 - vyï “thousand”  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɹtmaʊ
Else: Suffix -aʊɹtmaʊ
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj])
= Suffix -æ
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj])
= If ends with vowel: Suffix -nʒeɪ
Else: Suffix -aʊnʒeɪ
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun])
= If ends with vowel: Suffix -mz
Else: Suffix -ɔɪmz
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic)
= Suffix -ɑ
Noun → verb (to create [noun])
= If ends with vowel: Suffix -r
Else: Suffix -ær
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb])
= Suffix -ɑ
Verb → adjective (likely to do [verb])
= If ends with vowel: Suffix -g
Else: Suffix -ɪg
Verb → noun (the act of [verb])
= Suffix -aʊrv
Verb → noun that verb physically produces (e.g. build → building)
= Suffix -ir
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter)
= Suffix -i
Place of (e.g. wine → winery)
= If ends with vowel: Suffix -ndbʊ
Else: Suffix -ʌndbʊ
Diminutive
= If ends with vowel: Suffix -jf
Else: Suffix -æjf
Augmentative
= If ends with vowel: Suffix -t
Else: Suffix -ʌt

Dictionary

4324 Words.
Common Female Names
Ehrrtoro, Yrzderi
Common Male Names
Rorzid

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