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Arresi (ɑˈɹɛsi)

Natively known as: ɑɹɛsi /ɑˈɹɛsi/

  ...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind...
e sru pracarta gos tarbe tro e cua gos igrin pun ven clol
Pronunciation: /e sɾu pɾaˈkaɾta gos ˈtaɾbe tɾo e kwa gos ˈigɾin pun ven klol /
Arresi word order: and stood holding his hat he and turned his wet face the wind to  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: b d f g k l m n p r s t w x ɲ ɾ ʎ ʧ
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ
Stop p b t d k g
Affricate ʧ
Fricative f s x
Tap ɾ
Trill r
Lateral approximant l ʎ
Co-articulated phonemes
↓Manner/Place→ Labial-velar
Approximant w
Vowel inventory: a e i o u
Front Back
High i u
High-mid e o
Low a
Syllable structure: Custom defined ?
Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable ?   Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
ɾ r
ʎ y / #_
ʎ ll
kw cu
k c
ʧ ch
ɲ ñ
x g / _{e,i}
x j

Grammar

  Main word order: Verb Object (Prepositional phrase) Subject. “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Opened the door with a key Mary.
Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.
Adposition: postpositions ?  

Nouns

  Nouns have four cases:
  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
  • Dative is the recipient of something: man gives ball to dog.
Nominative No affix
duspun /ˈduspun/ dog (doing the verb)
Accusative If starts with vowel: Prefix g-
Else: Prefix go-
goduspun /goˈduspun/ (verb done to) dog
Genitive Prefix xe-
geduspun /xeˈduspun/ dogʼs
Dative If starts with vowel: Prefix kw-
Else: Prefix kwa-
cuaduspun /kwaˈduspun/ to (the/a) dog
Singular No affix
duspun /ˈduspun/ dog
Plural Prefix e-
eduspun /eˈduspun/ dogs

Articles

Definite gred /gɾed/ the
Indefinite i /i/ a, some
Uses of definite article that differ from English:
  • Used to talk about countable nouns in general: English’s ‘I like cats’ would translate to ‘I like the cats’
  • Used for languages: ‘The English’
  Uses of indefinite article that differ from English:
  • Not used for non-specific countable nouns: non-specific means ‘I am looking for a (any) girl in a red dress’, whereas specific means ‘I am looking for a (particular) girl in a red dress’
 

Pronouns

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative
1st singular pi /pi/ I te /te/ me sar /saɾ/ mine mo /mo/ to me
2nd singular no /no/ you far /faɾ/ you pu /pu/ yours fe /fe/ to you
3rd singular masc tro /tɾo/ he, it cen /ken/ him, it grur /gɾuɾ/ his, its bol /bol/ to him, at it
3rd singular fem a /a/ she, it cles /kles/ her, it yin /ʎin/ hers, its crul /kɾul/ to her, at it
1st plural gan /gan/ we mu /mu/ us an /an/ ours mun /mun/ to us
2nd plural e /e/ you all mas /mas/ you all fle /fle/ yours (pl) cos /kos/ to you all
3rd plural pis /pis/ they u /u/ them bu /bu/ theirs re /re/ to them

Possessive determiners

1st singular el /el/ my
2nd singular le /le/ your
3rd singular masc gos /gos/ his
3rd singular fem dru /dɾu/ her
1st plural es /es/ our
2nd plural mad /mad/ your (pl)
3rd plural ned /ned/ their

Verbs

Present No affix
eri /ˈeri/ learn
Past If starts with vowel: Prefix kl-
Else: Prefix kle-
cleri /ˈkleri/ learned
Remote past Prefix o-
oeri /oˈeri/ learned (long ago)
Arresi uses a standalone particle word for future tense:
Future Particle before the verb: sɾa -
sra eri /sɾa ˈeri/ will learn

Imperfective aspect

  The ‘imperfective’ aspect refers to ongoing actions, such as I am learning and habitual actions, such as I learn (something new every day).
Arresi uses a standalone particle word for imperfective:
Imperfective Particle before the verb: eɾ -
er eri /eɾ ˈeri/ learns/is learning

Numbers

  Arresi has a base-10 number system:   1 - pru
2 - li
3 - clear
4 - co
5 - ces
6 - ud
7 - pros
8 - ris
9 - plomer
10 - dra
100 - per
1000 - mola
 

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = If starts with vowel: Prefix kɾ-
Else: Prefix kɾa-
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Prefix i-
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix p-
Else: Prefix pi-
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix ʎ-
Else: Prefix ʎa-
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If starts with vowel: Prefix m-
Else: Prefix mu-
Noun to verb = Prefix a-
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Prefix e-
Tending to = If starts with vowel: Prefix d-
Else: Prefix du-
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix k-
Else: Prefix ka-
Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = Prefix o-
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Prefix o-
Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Prefix de-
Diminutive = If starts with vowel: Prefix s-
Else: Prefix sa-
Augmentative = Prefix ma-

Dictionary

3074 Words.
Spoken by
Common Female Names
Necalle, Elamana, Maramo, Banadi, Cererim, Estaseque, Urisol, Necojo, Serafi, Inared, Llesina
Common Male Names
Marece, Doferde, Cerred, Ranonec, Paceque, Rimufig, Ettaser, Anetier, Guillare, Evinor, Xavire, Ricaro, Samule, Ranedal
Common Unisex Names
Mikano, Forote, Vinence, Cerama

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