Takpoian Language in Kelbonnar | World Anvil


Natively known as: Takpo /ˈtakpɔ/

  ...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind... we ipa vote gba gbai i we puyo gba gbati moya pe fupi Pronunciation: /wɛ ˈipa ˈvɔtɛ gba ˈgbai i wɛ ˈpʊjɔ gba ˈgbati ˈmɔja pɛ ˈfʊpi/ Takpoian word order: and stood holding his hat he and turned his wet face to the wind  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: /f gb j k kp m n p t v w/
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n
Stop p t k
Fricative f v
Approximant j
Co-articulated phonemes
↓Manner/Place→ Labio-velar Labial–velar
Stop kp gb
Approximant w
Vowel inventory: /a i ɔ ɛ ʊ/
Front Back
High i
Near-high ʊ
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Low a
Syllable structure: (C)V ? Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable ? Word initial consonants: f, gb, kp, m, p, t, v, w Mid-word consonants: f, gb, j, k, kp, m, n, p, t, v, w Word final consonants: N/A   Phonological changes (in order of application): ?  
  • j → i / C_#
  • j → ð / V_V
  • ɛ → ɪ / _N
  • a → e / _j#
  • m → n / _#
  • t → ʧ / _{i,ı̃}
  Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
j y
ɔ o
ɛ e
ʊ u


  Main word order: Verb-Object-Oblique-Subject. "Mary opened the door with a key" turns into Opened the door with a key Mary. Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun. Adposition: prepositions ?  


  Nouns have five cases:
  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
  • Dative is the recipeint of something: man gives ball to dog.
  • Locative is the location of something: man goes to town.
Nominative No affix ima /ˈima/ dog (doing the verb)
Accusative Prefix wi- wiima /wiˈima/ (verb done to) dog
Genitive Prefix vɛ- veima /vɛˈima/ dogʼs
Dative Prefix va- vaima /vaˈima/ to (the/a) dog
Locative Prefix wɛ- weima /wɛˈima/ near/at/by (the/a) dog
Singular No affix ima /ˈima/ dog
Plural Prefix gbi- gbiima /gbiˈima/ dogs


Definite Indefinite
Singular ma /ma/ the we /wɛ/ a
Plural mo /mɔ/ the ve /vɛ/ some


Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Locative
1st singular ta /ta/ I va /va/ me e /ɛ/ mine gbe /gbɛ/ to me kpu /kpʊ/ at me
2nd singular wi /wi/ you mo /mɔ/ you pe /pɛ/ yours pi /pi/ to you to /tɔ/ at you
3rd singular masc i /i/ he ve /vɛ/ him vi /vi/ his fi /fi/ to him po /pɔ/ at him
3rd singular fem gbu /gbʊ/ she o /ɔ/ her mu /mʊ/ hers fo /fɔ/ to her fa /fa/ at her
1st plural tu /tʊ/ we a /a/ us vo /vɔ/ ours pu /pʊ/ to us gbo /gbɔ/ at us
2nd plural we /wɛ/ you (all) ma /ma/ you (all) fu /fʊ/ yours gbi /gbi/ to you (all) vu /vʊ/ at you (all)
3rd plural kpe /kpɛ/ they gba /gba/ them kpi /kpi/ theirs kpa /kpa/ to them wa /wa/ at them

Possessive determiners

1st singular i /i/ my
2nd singular e /ɛ/ your
3rd singular masc gba /gba/ his
3rd singular fem mo /mɔ/ her
1st plural pi /pi/ our
2nd plural gbe /gbɛ/ your
3rd plural wi /wi/ their


Present No affix kpeto /ˈkpɛtɔ/ study
Past Prefix wi- wikpeto /wikpˈɛtɔ/ studied
Takpoian uses a standalone particle word for future tense:
Future me /mɛ/ will

Perfect aspect

  The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present. Takpoian uses the word for ‘finish’ mave for the perfect aspect.  


  Takpoian has a base-10 number system:   1 - a 2 - po 3 - mo 4 - kpa 5 - wine 6 - vate 7 - mowe 8 - gbefe 9 - gbiki 10 - vefume 11 - a we vefume “one and ten” 100 - poa “hundred” 101 - poa we a “hundred and one” 200 - po poa 1000 - gbuwe “thousand”  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = Prefix tʊ- Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Prefix tɔ- Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Prefix gbʊ- Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Prefix mɛ- Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = Prefix kpa- Noun → verb (to create [noun]) = Prefix gbi- Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Prefix pi- Verb → adjective (likely to do [verb]) = Prefix vi- Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Prefix gbʊ- Verb → noun that verb physically produces (e.g. build → building) = Prefix pɔ- One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Prefix wɛ- Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Prefix gbɛ- Diminutive = Prefix tʊ- Augmentative = Prefix vɛ-


4343 Words.


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