Palawcho

Natively known as: Palawcho /paˈlɔʧo/

  ...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind... pa cha riya nupi cha fero pa pawpo cha ibawya lata a kafa Pronunciation: /pa ʧa ˈrija ˈɲupi ʧa ˈfero pa ˈpɔpo ʧa iˈbɔja ˈlata a ˈkafa/ Palawchoian word order: and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: /b d f g h j k l m p r t w ɲ ʔ ʧ/
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m ɲ
Stop p b t d k g ʔ
Affricate ʧ
Fricative f h
Approximant j
Trill r
Lateral approximant l
  Co-articulated phonemes
↓Manner/Place→ Labio-velar
Approximant w
  Vowel inventory: /a e i o u ɔ/
Front Back
High i u
High-mid e o
Low-mid ɔ
Low a
  Syllable structure: (C)V ? Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable ? Word initial consonants: b, f, k, l, m, p, r, t, w, ɲ, ʧ Mid-word consonants: b, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, p, r, t, w, ɲ, ʔ, ʧ Word final consonants: N/A   Phonological changes (in order of application): ?  
  • h → Ø / #_
  • N → m / _#
  • ja → aː / C_
  Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
j y
ɔ aw
ɲ n
ʔ ʻ
ʧ ch
 

Grammar

  Main word order: Subject-Verb-Object-Oblique. "Mary opened the door with a key" turns into Mary opened the door with a key. Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun. Adposition: prepositions ?  

Nouns

Singular No affix chawlere /ʧɔˈlere/ dog
Plural Prefix ʧɔ- chawchawlere /ˌʧɔʧɔˈlere/ dogs
 

Articles

Definite Indefinite
Singular la /la/ the wu /wu/ a
Plural no /ɲo/ the a /a/ some
 

Pronouns

1st singular bu /bu/ I, me, mine
2nd singular paw /pɔ/ you, yours
3rd singular masc cha /ʧa/ he, him, his
3rd singular fem a /a/ she, her, hers
1st plural chaw /ʧɔ/ we, us, ours
2nd plural fo /fo/ you (all), yours
3rd plural me /me/ they, them, theirs
 

Possessive determiners

1st singular bu /bu/ my
2nd singular paw /pɔ/ your
3rd singular masc cha /ʧa/ his
3rd singular fem a /a/ her
1st plural chaw /ʧɔ/ our
2nd plural paw /pɔ/ your
3rd plural me /me/ their
 

Verbs

Present No affix wichi /ˈwiʧi/ study
Past Prefix lɔ- lawwichi /lɔˈwiʧi/ studied
Remote past Prefix ɲo- nowichi /ɲoˈwiʧi/ studied (long ago)
Future Prefix ka- kawichi /kaˈwiʧi/ will study
 

Imperfective aspect

  The ‘imperfective’ aspect refers to ongoing actions, such as I am studying and habitual actions, such as I study (every night). Palawchoian uses a standalone particle word for imperfective:
Imperfective a /a/ imperfect particle
 

Perfect aspect

  The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present. Palawchoian uses an affix for the perfect aspect:
Perfect Prefix bi- biwichi /biˈwiʧi/
 

Numbers

  Palawchoian has a base-20 number system:   1 - mu 2 - paw 3 - be 4 - u 5 - no 6 - bu 7 - fo 8 - kawgu 9 - chera 10 - buya 11 - mepawtaw 12 - kawawcha 13 - kawhe 14 - biwawlaw 15 - pare 16 - rawawye 17 - adawdi 18 - ochu 19 - alawgo 20 - chawtawli 21 - mu pa chawtawli “one and twenty” 400 - mu fawha “one fourhundred” 401 - mu fawha pa mu “one fourhundred and one” 800 - paw fawha “two fourhundred” 8000 - mu wuga “one eightthousand”  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = Prefix ʧɔ- Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Prefix ta- Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Prefix kɔ- Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Prefix ta- Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = Prefix ri- Noun → verb (to create [noun]) = Prefix bo- Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Prefix wu- Verb → adjective (likely to do [verb]) = Prefix ɲu- Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Prefix fo- Verb → noun that verb physically produces (e.g. build → building) = Prefix pɔ- One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Prefix mo- Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Prefix to- Diminutive = Prefix tu- Augmentative = Prefix la-

Dictionary

4402 Words.
Spoken by

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