Natively known as: Jotunite

  ...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind... ti kʼe dambo ma tsa tʼepʼ wae ti kʼekhtse tʼou ma tsa motʼitna tsa us Pronunciation: /ti kʼe ˈdambo ma ʦa tʼepʼ waˈe ti ˈkʼexʦe ˈtʼou ma ʦa ˈmotʼitna ʦa us/ Dakhwan word order: and he his hat holding stood and his wet face the wind to turned  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: /b d g j k kʼ m n p pʼ s t tʼ w x ʦ/
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Ejective stop
Nasal m n
Stop p b t d k g
Affricate ʦ
Fricative s x
Approximant j
  Co-articulated phonemes
↓Manner/Place→ Labial-velar
Approximant w
  Vowel inventory: /a e i o u/
Front Back
High i u
High-mid e o
Low a
  Syllable structure: (C)V(C) Stress pattern: No fixed stress Word initial consonants: b, d, j, k, kʼ, m, n, p, pʼ, t, tʼ, w, x, ʦ Mid-word consonants: b, bb, bd, bn, bt, bw, d, db, dd, dg, dm, ds, dt, dw, g, gd, gj, gn, gs, gw, j, jb, jj, jk, jn, jt, k, kk, km, ks, kw, kʼ, m, mb, mj, mk, mn, ms, mt, mw, n, nk, nm, np, ns, nt, nx, p, pk, pm, pn, pt, pw, pʼ, s, sj, sn, sp, ss, sw, t, tb, td, tg, tk, tn, ts, tt, tx, tʼ, w, wb, wd, wg, wm, wp, wt, wx, x, xd, xg, xk, xn, xt, xw, xʦ, ʦ, ʦn, ʦs, ʦt, ʦw Word final consonants: b, d, g, k, kʼ, m, n, pʼ, s, t, tʼ, w, ʦ   Phonological changes (in order of application):  
  • s → z / V_V
  • k → Ø / V_V
  • N → n / _#
  • s → h / _i
  • s → h / V_V
  • o → Ø / _u
  • s → h / V_V
  • L → d / #_
  Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
j y
x kh
ʦ ts


  Main word order: Subject-Object-Oblique-Verb. "Mary opened the door with a key" turns into Mary the door with a key opened. Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun. Adposition: postpositions  


  Nouns have six cases:
  • Ergative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man. However, the ergative affix is only applied if there is an absolutive in the sentence.
  • Absolutive is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
  • Dative is the recipeint of something: man gives ball to dog.
  • Locative is the location of something: man goes to town.
  • Ablative is movement away from something: man walks from town.
Ergative Suffix -o wimboo /wimˈboo/ dog (doing the verb to something)
Absolutive No affix wimbo /ˈwimbo/ dog (doing the verb, but not to something)
Genitive Suffix -i wimboi /ˈwimboi/ dogʼs
Dative If ends with vowel: Suffix -kʼ Else: Suffix -ikʼ wimbokʼ /ˈwimbokʼ/ to (the/a) dog
Locative Suffix -a wimboa /ˈwimboa/ near/at/by (the/a) dog
Ablative Prefix ba- bawimbo /baˈwimbo/ from (the/a) dog
Masculine Feminine
Singular No affix bukhgo /buxˈgo/ man No affix apʼ /apʼ/ woman
Plural Prefix e- ebukhgo /eˈbuxgo/ men If ends with vowel: Suffix -n Else: Suffix -on apʼon /aˈpʼon/ women


  Dakhwan has no definite article ‘the’, or indefinite article ‘a’.  


Ergative Absolutive Genitive Dative Locative Ablative
1st singular a /a/ I non /non/ me, I kapʼ /kapʼ/ mine kʼi /kʼi/ to me nek /nek/ at me pʼu /pʼu/ from me
2nd singular om /om/ you ka /ka/ you wat /wat/ yours pʼopʼ /pʼopʼ/ to you khe /xe/ at you tiw /tiw/ from you
3rd singular masc kʼe /kʼe/ he, it tsa /ʦa/ him, it tʼo /tʼo/ his, its mod /mod/ to him, at it pʼom /pʼom/ at him, at it yem /jem/ from him, from it
3rd singular fem pʼo /pʼo/ she, it u /u/ her, it khew /xew/ her, its ko /ko/ to her, at it ek /ek/ at her, at it dug /dug/ from her, from it
1st plural o /o/ we ba /ba/ us, we opʼ /opʼ/ ours no /no/ to us pʼok /pʼok/ at us tʼen /tʼen/ from us
2nd plural wa /wa/ you (all) wi /wi/ you (all) tig /tig/ yours kod /kod/ to you (all) wit /wit/ at you (all) ya /ja/ from you (all)
3rd plural masc kuk /kuk/ they pad /pad/ them, they yed /jed/ theirs pu /pu/ to them kʼitʼ /kʼitʼ/ at them e /e/ from them
3rd plural fem mu /mu/ they mo /mo/ them, they khi /xi/ theirs pukʼ /pukʼ/ to them was /was/ at them em /em/ from them

Possessive determiners

1st singular a /a/ my
2nd singular o /o/ your
3rd singular masc mo /mo/ her, its
3rd singular fem pats /paʦ/ her, its
1st plural wan /wan/ our
2nd plural mow /mow/ your
3rd plural masc wi /wi/ their
3rd plural fem kon /kon/ their


Masculine Prefix a- aabwak /aˈabwak/
Feminine If ends with vowel: Suffix -d Else: Suffix -ad abwakad /aˈbwakad/
  Dakhwan uses a standalone particle word for past tense:
Past Particle before the verb: wa - wa abwak /wa ˈabwak/ learned

Imperfective aspect

  The ‘imperfective’ aspect refers to ongoing actions, such as I am learning and habitual actions, such as I learn (something new every day).   Dakhwan uses an affix for imperfective:
Imperfective If starts with vowel: Prefix k- Else: Prefix ke- kabwak /ˈkabwak/ learns/is learning


  Dakhwan has a base-10 number system:   1 - ab 2 - un 3 - buts 4 - mun 5 - a 6 - wid 7 - pa 8 - etkukʼ 9 - titse 10 - mu 11 - ab ti mu “one and ten” 100 - mog “hundred” 101 - mog ti ab “hundred and one” 200 - un mog 1000 - kotkatʼ “thousand”  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = If ends with vowel: Suffix -d Else: Suffix -ad Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -w Else: Suffix -aw Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -g Else: Suffix -ug Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Suffix -og Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -tʼ Else: Suffix -otʼ Noun → verb (to create [noun]) = Suffix -a Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -pʼ Else: Suffix -opʼ Verb → adjective (likely to do [verb]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -n Else: Suffix -un Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix x- Else: Prefix xi- Verb → noun that verb physically produces (e.g. build → building) = Suffix -u One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -d Else: Suffix -ad Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -s Else: Suffix -is Diminutive = Prefix ji- Augmentative = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʦ Else: Suffix -uʦ


4427 Words.
Spoken by


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