Dosogbuian

...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind... bú u haʻu utúsi shú dædu bú yúbu shú mato kesúnu kpapa gbi Pronunciation: /by u ˈhaʔu uˈtysi ʃy ˈdædu by ˈjybu ʃy ˈmato keˈsynu ˈkpapa gbi/ Dosogbuian word order: and he stood holding hat his and turned his face wet the wind to  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: /b d f g gb h j k kp m n p s t w ʃ ʔ/
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative f s ʃ h
Approximant j
Co-articulated phonemes
↓Manner/Place→ Labio-velar Labial–velar
Stop kp gb
Approximant w
Vowel inventory: /a e i o u y æ/
Front Back
High i y u
High-mid e o
Near-low æ
Low a
Syllable structure: (C)V Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable Word initial consonants: b, d, g, gb, h, j, k, kp, m, s, t, ʃ Mid-word consonants: b, d, f, g, gb, h, j, k, kp, m, n, p, s, t, w, ʃ, ʔ Word final consonants: N/A   Phonological changes (in order of application):  
  • {k,g} → [+palato-alveolar] / _E
  • N → ŋk / _V
  • k → g / _ʔ
  • k → Ø / _#
  • u → w / _a
  Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
j y
y ú
ʃ sh
ʔ ʻ

Grammar

  Main word order: Subject-Verb-Object-Oblique. "Mary opened the door with a key" turns into Mary opened the door with a key. Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned after the noun. Adposition: postpositions  

Nouns

 

Singular

Masculine Feminine
Definite Suffix -mu gbebamu /gbeˈbamu/ the man Suffix -bæ hahebæ /haˈhebæ/ the woman
Indefinite Suffix -gæ gbebagæ /gbeˈbagæ/ a man Suffix -wa hahewa /haˈhewa/ a woman

Plural

Masculine Feminine
Definite Suffix -fe gbebafe /gbeˈbafe/ the men Suffix -pe hahepe /haˈhepe/ the women
Indefinite Suffix -bo gbebabo /gbeˈbabo/ some men Suffix -ju haheyu /haˈheju/ some women

Articles

  Dosogbuian encodes definite article ‘the’, and indefinite article ‘a’ in noun affixes. See Noun section.  

Pronouns

1st singular /sy/ I, me, mine
2nd singular do /do/ you, yours
3rd singular masc u /u/ he, him, his
3rd singular fem mu /mu/ she, her, hers
1st plural gbu /gbu/ we, us, ours
2nd plural /dæ/ you (all), yours
3rd plural masc shæ /ʃæ/ they, them, theirs
3rd plural fem /jy/ they, them, theirs

Possessive determiners

1st singular ba /ba/ my
2nd singular i /i/ your
3rd singular masc shú /ʃy/ his
3rd singular fem u /u/ her
1st plural kpe /kpe/ our
2nd plural bo /bo/ your
3rd plural masc e /e/ their
3rd plural fem kpa /kpa/ their

Verbs

Present No affix ufúpe /uˈfype/ study
Past Suffix -su ufúpesu /ˌufyˈpesu/ studied
Remote past Suffix -gbo ufúpegbo /ˌufyˈpegbo/ studied (long ago)
Future Suffix -wa ufúpewa /ˌufyˈpewa/ will study

Perfect aspect

  The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present. Dosogbuian uses the word for ‘already’ gbuyu for the perfect aspect.  

Numbers

  Dosogbuian has a base-10 number system:   1 - mu 2 - tu 3 - du 4 - yo 5 - súdu 6 - tuwæ 7 - súfe 8 - kekpæ 9 - túno 10 - shænu 11 - shænumu “ten-one” 100 - mu suso “one hundred” 101 - mu suso bú mu “one hundred and one” 200 - tu suso 1000 - mu gegbæ “one thousand”  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = Suffix -su Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Suffix -na Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Suffix -su Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Suffix -kpy Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = Suffix -ti Noun → verb (to create [noun]) = Suffix -su Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Suffix -ti Verb → adjective (likely to do [verb]) = Suffix -ti Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Suffix -kpu Verb → noun that verb physically produces (e.g. build → building) = Suffix -gæ One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Suffix -hæ Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Suffix -ke Diminutive = Suffix -ho Augmentative = Suffix -ʃæ

Dictionary

4328 Words.
Spoken by

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