While I usually wouldn't waste time on it, I know how much you enjoy history. Here's a breakdown of the last few centuries. The aol are fairly new to the galactic community, only recently discovering the fusion technology allowing warp travel. They spent most of their time as hunter-gatherers until the Aolna appeared. The Aolna quickly established themselves as superior. They rapidly developed technology at a rate rarely seen in other species. The Aolna were also quick to force their ideologies on society as a whole. They are not religious. "Spiritual" may be a better term. Not everyone appreciated the Aolna's dominance. Many ethnic groups fought against them. The ones that survived found themselves at the bottom of their caste system.
The Aolna have nothing in the way of religion, but they have some interesting views on consciousness. They believe the mind and body are inherently separate. The body is merely a vessel to them. They have no funerary traditions. They barely register death to begin with. This has led to their most valuable export, their own skin. The aol grow by molting. The old carapace is shed to make room for growth. They gather it and sell it off the world. The carapace of the aol is stronger than steel, and their ships are a prime example of this. They need water to survive, and the pressure on their water filled vessels is much higher than ours. Their idea of music and art is also quite interesting. Their claws and multitude of legs can be used as percussion instruments. The chattering of their mouths allows them to make a wide range of sounds for lyrics, though their language is highly complex and impossible to speak for us humans.