Church of Amaunator
Amaunator is the central god worshipped in the Sh'areen Caliphate and the Caliph themselves is considered a representative of the god. That said, the Caliphate is actually structured more like feudal nation than a theocracy and the Church of Amaunator exists completely outside the nation's political system. The exception to this are the Divine Guides who are vnerated elders within the church who are assigned to maintain the office of the Caliph.
The Caliph is technically the head of the Church as well as head of the nation, but since they're typically quite busy with the latter, the functional head is the Cardinal Superior, who is also always one of the Divine Guides. It might seem like this makes them more powerful than the other Guides, but the fact that their duties now takes them away from the Caliph in many cases makes this a mixed blessing. The Cardinal Superior is served by nine Cardinals. Seven of them represent different areas of the Caliphate, one leads the Order of the Sun Soul, and one represents all those who travel or can't be part of the regions overseen by the others. Each Cardinal has a number of bishops that they have placed in important locations (often the cities from which influential noble houses rule). Each such Bishop then assigns one or more Priest to temples nearby. These priests can recruit laymen who help run the location but who have no formal training and haven't been ordained.
Like their god, the Church stands as a bulwark against the forces of evil and as a pillar of justice for others to look up to. In communities where no other formal judge is assigned, the local temple usually decides on, and often act out, punishments. They often claim to have this right even in other areas if the crime specifically goes against the wishes of Amaunator or has to do with association with fiends. Technically they don't have jurisdiction for either of these, but sometimes it's easier to let them take care of it than having to fight the Church.
While few know exactly how wealthy the Church is, it is clear that the answer is incredibly rich. Temples are often lavishly decorated in gold and gems. There are plenty of extremely valuable artefacts. And considering their close ties to the Caliph, it might not be so strange that they're exempt from most taxation and are quite good and having valuables end up with them.