Theme: Slavery and human rights

Theme Explorations

Slaves as inhuman

  • Various sources reinforce the concept that free will defined what it meant to be human, and that slaves were seen as property and "not human".

Slavery and Democracy

  • "Slavery is the enabler for citzens to participate in democracy" referring to the use of slavery in Ancient Greece. (McInerney)
  • "Freedom from work became the defining aspect of citizenship" (McInerney)

Oligarchy as a driver for Slavery / Serfdom

  • "Extreme material stratification in society generates social conflict. Highly unequal distributions of wealth are impossible without a firmament of enforcement, which means property claims and rights can never be separated from coercion and violence." [Winters. Oligarchy (p. 7). Cambridge University Press. Kindle Edition.]
  • "The enjoyment of even modest property amid propertylessness and he taste of freedom amid slavery permanently tamed the lower elements of the citizenry." [Winters. Oligarchy (p. 87). Cambridge University Press. Kindle Edition.]
  • "The third factor concerns how slavery and exclusionary laws of citizenship throughout the Greco-Roman period shaped the behaviors of a significant middle stratum of free citizens, who were objectively oppressed but subjectively grateful not to be either slaves or exploited noncitizens in the cities or the provinces." [Winters. Oligarchy (p. 77). Cambridge University Press. Kindle Edition.]
  • “The institution of serfdom as a mechanism of surplus extraction fused economic exploitation and politico-legal coercion at the molecular level of the village,” he writes. “The lord in his turn typically owed liege-loyalty and knight-service to a seigniorial overlord, who claimed the land as his ultimate domain.” It was precisely because the overlords’ property claims were so indefensible in the first place that they participated actively in creating a feudal structure that would, as the centuries unfolded, severely undermine overlord property claims." [Winters. Oligarchy (p. 52). Cambridge University Press. Kindle Edition.]

Slavery in Zihæt

  • Slave as a social and political status in Drákon League
  • Slave as a tradeable commodity, and Slave Markets
  • Slave Tatoo as a unique item in Zihæt
  • Background: Slave in the Akadimía Campaign
  • Phlios Meletitís as a progressive interested in restricting and reforming slavery
  • Temenos Megalos as an oligarch interested in expanding slavery


    1. Beyond Slavery: Overcoming Its Religious and Sexual Legacies (Black Religion/Womanist Thought/Social Justice), Jacqueline L. Hazelton (2010). Kindle Edition.
    2. The Roman Guide to Slave Management: A Treatise by Nobleman Marcus Sidonius Falx, Jerry Toner & Mary Beard (2014). Kindle Edition.
    3. Greek and Roman Slavery (Routledge Sourcebooks for the Ancient World) (2003). Thomas Wiedemann. Kindle Edition.
    4. Oligarchy, Jeffrey A Winters, 2011. ISBN 0521182980,
    5. Robert Garland, Ph.D., The other side of history, presented by The Great Courses
    6. Robert Garland, Ph.D., Athenian Democracy: An Experiment for the Ages, presented by The Great Courses
    7. Jeremy McInerney, Ph.D., Ancient Greek Civilization, presented by The Great Courses. Lecture 22: Slavery and Freedom
    8. Jason C. Bivens, Ph.D., Thinking about Religion and Violence, presented by The Great Courses. Lecture 17. Religion's relationship with Slavery
    9. Wikipedia: Slavery
    10. Wikipedia: Slavery in medieval Europe
    11. Wikipedia: Slavery in ancient Greece


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