Cheulque

The most prominent language of the Gallic satellites, originating on Aquitania.
...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind...
cretre frue voui irse fruer bron cretre tieubre frue luon querche deupre
Pronunciation: /kʁɛtʁ fʁɥe vwi iʁs fʁɥe bʁɔ̃ kʁɛtʁ tjœbʁ fʁɥe lɥɔ̃ kɛʁʃ dœpʁ/
Cheulque word order: and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind

Spelling & Phonology

Consonant inventory: b d f g j k l m n p s t v w z ɥ ɲ ʁ ʃ ʒ
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ɲ
Stop p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ʁ
Approximant j
Lateral approximant l
 

Co-articulated phonemes

Vowel inventory: a e i o u y ø œ ɑ̃ ɔ ɔ̃ ɛ ɛ̃

↓Manner/Place→ Labial-palatal Labial-velar
Approximant ɥ w
Front Back
High i y u
High-mid e ø o
Low-mid ɛ ɛ̃ œ ɔ ɔ̃
Low a ɑ̃
 
Syllable structure: Custom defined
Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable
Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
e e*4 | er / _#
ksj cti
ks xe / _#
ks x
k que / _#
kt ct
sk squ
k c / !_{i,e,ɛ}
k qu
d de / _#
t# te
wi oui
wɛ̃ oin
jɛ̃ ien
ɛ̃ in
wɑ{a,ɑ} oi
ʒ g / _{i,e,ɛ}
ʒm gem
ɥ u
y u
j i
ʒ ge / _#
ʒ j
ʃ che / _#
ɲ gn
e / CC_#
v ve / _#
ʃ ch
ʁ r | rd | rt / _#
ʁ r
ɔ̃ on | om / _#
ɔ̃ on
ɔ o
ɑ̃ an
ɛ e
ø eu
œ eu
w u
 

Grammar

Main word order: Subject Verb Object (Prepositional phrase). “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Mary opened the door with a key.
Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.
Adposition: prepositions

Nouns

Singular No affix
ruan /ʁwɑ̃/ dog
Plural If starts with vowel: Prefix kʁ-
Else: Prefix kʁø-
creuruan /ˈkʁøʁwɑ̃/ dogs
 

Articles

Cheulque has no definite article ‘the’, or indefinite article ‘a’.

Pronouns

Nominative Accusative
1st singular gla /gla/ I vion /vjɔ̃/ me
2nd singular bresque /bʁɛsk/ you ruaxte /ʁwakst/ you
3rd singular masc fruer /fʁɥe/ he, it po /pɔ/ him, it
3rd singular fem u /u/ she, it e /ɛ/ her, it
1st plural inclusive spe /spe/ we (including you) pleu /plœ/ us (including you)
1st plural exclusive juan /ʒɥɑ̃/ we (excluding you) be /be/ us (excluding you)
2nd plural pre /pʁɛ/ you all lantre /lɑ̃tʁ/ you all
3rd plural peu /pœ/ they a /a/ them
 

Possessive determiners

1st singular gla /gla/ my
2nd singular bresque /bʁɛsk/ your
3rd singular masc frue /fʁɥe/ his
3rd singular fem u /u/ her
1st plural inclusive sper /spe/ our (including you)
1st plural exclusive juan /ʒɥɑ̃/ our (excluding you)
2nd plural pre /pʁɛ/ your (pl)
3rd plural peu /pœ/ their
 

Verbs

Present If starts with vowel: Prefix tj-
Else: Prefix tjy-
tiuvo /ˈtjyvo/ learn
Past No affix
vo /vo/ learned
Cheulque uses a standalone particle word for future tense:
Future Particle before the verb: ɛ̃ -
in vo /ɛ̃ vo/ will learn
 

Imperfective aspect

  The ‘imperfective’ aspect refers to ongoing actions, such as I am learning and habitual actions, such as I learn (something new every day).
Cheulque uses a standalone particle word for imperfective:
Imperfective Particle before the verb: dʁwɔ̃lm -
druonlme vo /dʁwɔ̃lm vo/ learns/is learning
 

Numbers

Cheulque has a base-20 number system:
1 - quicte
2 - ielme
3 - glu
4 - bia
5 - son
6 - lie
7 - nu
8 - vuo
9 - clef
10 - dontre
11 - bis
12 - uanqui
13 - inpmasla
14 - biunme
15 - querdre
16 - merde
17 - pucno
18 - luai
19 - astom
20 - tubre
21 - quicte cretre tubre “one and twenty”
400 - quicte gle “one fourhundred”
401 - quicte gle cretre quicte “one fourhundred and one”
800 - ielme gle “two fourhundred”
8000 - quicte choui “one eightthousand”

Derivational morphology

Adjective → adverb = Suffix -o
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Suffix -efʁ
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Suffix -œʒ
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -s
Else: Suffix -øs
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If starts with vowel: Prefix pɥ-
Else: Prefix pɥɛ-
Noun to verb = If starts with vowel: Prefix s-
Else: Prefix se-
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Suffix -a
Tending to = Suffix -œ
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -vʁ
Else: Suffix -evʁ
Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = Suffix -in
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Prefix ljo-
Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Prefix vi-
Diminutive = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʁt
Else: Suffix -ɛ̃ʁt
Augmentative = If ends with vowel: Suffix -t
Else: Suffix -at

Dictionary

3042 Words.
Spoken by

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