Draconic

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: /b d f g h j k l m n p s t v w z ð ŋ ɹ ʃ ʒ ʤ ʧ θ/

↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g
Affricate ʧ ʤ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h
Approximant ɹ j w
Lateral approximant l

Vowel inventory: /aɪ aʊ eɪ i u æ ɑ ɔɪ ɛ ɪ ʊ ʌ/

  Diphthongs: aɪ, aʊ, eɪ, ɔɪ  
Front Back
High i u
Near-high ɪ ʊ
Low-mid ɛ ʌ
Near-low æ
Low ɑ
Syllable structure: (C)V(C)
Stress pattern: No fixed stress
Word initial consonants: b, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, s, t, v, w, z, ð, ŋ, ɹ, ʃ, ʒ, ʤ, ʧ, θ
Mid-word consonants: b, bd, bɹ, d, f, fɹ, g, gl, h, hw, j, k, kn, kp, ks, kt, l, lʧ, m, mb, mp, n, nd, nf, ng, nv, p, pl, pt, pw, s, sp, t, tg, tk, tʧ, v, vw, w, z, ð, ŋ, ŋg, ŋh, ɹ, ɹm, ɹn, ɹp, ɹs, ɹv, ɹʧ, ʃ, ʃt, ʒ, ʤ, ʧ, θ
Word final consonants: b, d, f, g, k, l, m, n, p, s, t, v, w, z, ð, ŋ, ʃ, ʒ, ʤ, ʧ, θ   Phonological changes (in order of application):  

  • v → Ø / {t,d}_
  • s → ʃ / _i
  • v → p / _s
  • v → ft / _s
  • p → b / m_

  Spelling rules:  

Pronunciation Spelling
ie
ou
ay
j y
æ a
ð dh
ŋ ng
ɑ
ɔɪ oi
ɛ e
ɪ
ɹ r
ʃ sh
ʊ o
ʌ
ʒ zh
ʤ j
ʧ ch
θ th

Grammar

  Main word order: Subject-Object-Oblique-Verb. "Mary opened the door with a key" turns into Mary the door with a key opened.
Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.
Adposition: postpositions
 

Noun

 
Singular No affix
ngaîg /ŋaɪg/
Plural If starts with vowel: Prefix ɹ-
Else: Prefix ɹæ-
rangaîg /ˈɹæŋaɪg/

Nouns have four cases: Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man. Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog. Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man. Dative is the recipeint of something: man gives ball to dog.

Nominative No affix
ngaîg /ŋaɪg/
Accusative If starts with vowel: Prefix f-
Else: Prefix fɔɪ-
fɔîngaîg /ˈfɔɪŋaɪg/
Genitive Prefix si-
singaîg /ˈsiŋaɪg/
Dative Prefix ɑ-
ângaîg /ˈɑŋaɪg/

Articles

 
Definite âg /ɑg/
the
Indefinite kâk /kɑk/
a, some

Pronouns

 
Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative
1st singular ba /bæ/
I
ngaî /ŋaɪ/
me
dhaî /ðaɪ/
my, mine
ra /ɹæ/
to me
2nd singular mik /mik/
you
pâ /pɑ/
you
âw /ɑw/
your, yours
deîb /deɪb/
to you
3rd singular masc mî /mɪ/
he, it
zâ /zɑ/
him, it
mi /mi/
his, its
noj /nʊʤ/
to him
3rd singular fem ân /ɑn/
she, it
si /si/
her, it
ath /æθ/
her, hers, its
jû /ʤʌ/
to her
1st plural chî /ʧɪ/
we
dhɔî /ðɔɪ/
us
hî /hɪ/
our, ours
sek /sɛk/
to us
2nd plural /ɑ/
you (all)
a /æ/
you (all)
raj /ɹæʤ/
your, yours (all)
pâm /pɑm/
to you (all)
3rd plural sich /siʧ/
they
zhi /ʒi/
them
fɔîng /fɔɪŋ/
their, theirs
bas /bæs/
to them

Verbs

  Past tense may be indicated with the word:  
Past particle hus /hus/
past tense particle
Future If starts with vowel: Prefix ɪʒ-
Else: Prefix ɪʒʊ-
îzham /ˈɪʒæm/

Perfect aspect

  Perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present.   In Bingaowaîpian, the perfect is constructed with the word for ‘finish’ æŋæw + present tense of the verb.  

Numbers

Bingaowaîpian has a base-10 number system:

1 - nop
2 - rap
3 - ân
4 - waî
5 - mu
6 - es
7 - hî
8 - ab
9 - shakneî
10 - re
11 - re pâs nop “ten and one”
100 - deîa “hundred”
101 - deîa nop “hundred one”
200 - rap deîa
1000 - veîngɔîpɔîw “thousand”

 

Derivational morphology

Adjective → adverb = Prefix ɑ-
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix ɑn-
Else: Prefix ɑnæ-
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix eɪgl-
Else: Prefix eɪgleɪ-
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Prefix u-
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If starts with vowel: Prefix n-
Else: Prefix neɪ-
Noun → verb (to create [noun]) = Prefix ʊ-
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Prefix gɛ-
Verb → adjective (likely to do [verb]) = Prefix deɪ-
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Prefix ɛ-
Verb → noun that verb physically produces (e.g. build → building) = If starts with vowel: Prefix it-
Else: Prefix itu-
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = If starts with vowel: Prefix ʌŋ-
Else: Prefix ʌŋaɪ-
Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = If starts with vowel: Prefix ɛpl-
Else: Prefix ɛplɪ-
Diminutive = Prefix ɪ-
Augmentative = If starts with vowel: Prefix aɪθ-
Else: Prefix aɪθɪ-

Dictionary

4320 Words.

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