Naza (nah-za)

...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind...   e naw sega c͡haw na mobode e mawmu na ap͡si gana bap͡se pa[alt]   Pronunciation: /e nɔ ˈsegɑ c͡hɔ nɑ moˈbode e ˈmɔmu nɑ ˈɑp͡si ˈgɑnɑ ˈbɑp͡se pɑ/   Nazakh word order: and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face the wind to[/alt]  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: b c͡h d g k l m n p p͡h p͡s r͡h s t t͡h x z
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Alveolar Velar
Nasal m n
Stop p b t d k g
Fricative s z x
Lateral approximant l
Vowel inventory: e i o u ɑ ɔ ɛ
Front Back
High i u
High-mid e o
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Low ɑ
Syllable structure: (C)V   Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable   Word initial consonants: b c͡h g k l m n p p͡h p͡s r͡h s t t͡h x   Mid-word consonants: b c͡h d g k l m n p p͡h p͡s r͡h s t t͡h x z   Word final consonants:   Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
ɑ a
ɔ aw
x kh


  Main word order: Subject Verb Object (Prepositional phrase). “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Mary opened the door with a key.   Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.   Adposition: postpositions  


Masculine Feminine
Singular No affix taw /tɔ/ man No affix gugawso /guˈgɔso/ woman
Plural Prefix gi- gitaw /ˈgitɔ/ men Prefix xi- khigugawso /ˌxiguˈgɔso/ women


Definite mi /mi/ the
Indefinite lo /lo/ a, some
Uses of indefinite article that differ from English:
  • Not used for non-specific mass (uncountable) nouns: non-specific means ‘Would you like some (any) tea?’ whereas specific means ‘Some tea (a specific amount) fell off the truck’


1st singular bë /bɛ/ I, me, mine
2nd singular c͡he /c͡he/ you, yours
3rd singular masc naw /nɔ/ he, him, his, it, its
3rd singular fem khi /xi/ she, her, hers, it, its
1st plural ni /ni/ we, us, ours
2nd plural më /mɛ/ you all, yours (pl)
3rd plural masc law /lɔ/ they (masc), them (masc), theirs (masc)
3rd plural fem be /be/ they (fem), them (fem), theirs (fem)

Possessive determiners

1st singular li /li/ my
2nd singular p͡saw /p͡sɔ/ your
3rd singular masc na /nɑ/ his
3rd singular fem t͡ha /t͡hɑ/ her
1st plural me /me/ our
2nd plural mi /mi/ your (pl)
3rd plural masc e /e/ their (masc)
3rd plural fem bi /bi/ their (fem)


Present No affix p͡hise /ˈp͡hise/ learn
Past Prefix se- sep͡hise /sep͡hˈise/ learned
Future Prefix xe- khep͡hise /xep͡hˈise/ will learn

Perfect aspect

  The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present.   Gawmiti uses an affix for the perfect aspect:
Perfect Prefix bɛ- bëp͡hise /bɛp͡hˈise/ have learned


  Gawmiti has a base-10 number system:   1 - kha   2 - r͡ho   3 - gasaw   4 - p͡si   5 - i   6 - t͡hesa   7 - ba   8 - khase   9 - ko   10 - mu   11 - kha e mu “one and ten”   100 - khu “hundred”   101 - khu kha “hundred one”   200 - r͡ho khu   1000 - sënu “thousand”  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = Suffix -ne   Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Suffix -zɛ   Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Suffix -sɑ   Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Suffix -kɔ   Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = Prefix xe-   Noun to verb = Prefix t͡hɛ-   Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Suffix -bɑ   Tending to = Suffix -do   Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Suffix -t͡hɑ   Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = Suffix -r͡hɑ   One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Suffix -zɛ   Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Prefix mɑ-   Diminutive = Prefix mɑ-   Augmentative = Suffix -de


330 Words.
Spoken by