Injuries - Long Term Damage
Long-term damage, injury and debilitation is something not directly modeled with CD10, as it's not meant to be a survival-type system where rations, water, proper sleep etc are vital things to track.
Sleep deprivation, stress, terror
Lack of sleep is not something that is going to outright kill a character in any short period of time, so tracking it like wounds is unnecessary. It's much better to use the traits system for this. If a character starts sleeping poorly, skipping entire nights of sleeps, giving them a trait of Sleepless or Sleep Deprived that increases over time will solidly provide them with a debilitation value to use for certain checks, primarly mental tasks that require concentration and awareness.
The same system can be used for long-term stress and terror accrued by being in dangerous locales, or magic spells that affect the mind.
Hunger and dehydration
Lack of proper food and water is a far more immediate danger than lack of sleep and should use the wounds system. When to start tracking lack of food or water is up to you as the Keeper, but the classic rule of three is a decent start.
- 3 minutes without air
- 3 hours without shelter
- 3 days without water
- 3 weeks without food
Making use of the rule of three gives you a guideline for when things start to get grim. Do note that the rule of three means that you die, not start being in danger. So these guidelines represent the absolute end, not the beginning.
Every day without water could add three wounds. Every day past the first week without food would add a wound. Wounds do not heal while you are dehydrated and starving.
How you wish to do this is up to you, but those are some decent starting guidelines.
Another method is to use Lethality that increases for every time segment where a character is dehydrated or starving. It'll let them have a gamble on whether or not they'll take an injury or not and might provide a greater sense of dread than the "assured" fact of just getting wounds for starving.