Mystic

...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind... ti ma kap daî wiki shushbe ti daî tizhu tuki tîk kor kɔîth Pronunciation: /ti mæ kæp daɪ ˈwiki ˈʃuʃbɛ ti daɪ ˈtiʒu ˈtuki tɪk kʊɹ kɔɪθ/ Mystic word order: and he stood his hat holding and his wet face turned the wind to
 

Spelling & Phonology


  Consonant inventory: /b d f g h j k l m n p s t v w z ð ŋ ɹ ʃ ʒ ʤ ʧ θ/
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g
Affricate ʧ ʤ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h
Approximant ɹ j
Lateral approximant l
Co-articulated phonemes
↓Manner/Place→ Labio-velar
Approximant w
Vowel inventory: /aɪ aʊ eɪ i u æ ɑ ɔɪ ɛ ɪ ʊ ʌ/
  Diphthongs: aɪ, aʊ, eɪ, ɔɪ ?
Front Back
High i u
Near-high ɪ ʊ
Low-mid ɛ ʌ
Near-low æ
Low ɑ
Syllable structure: (C)V(C) ? Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable ? Word initial consonants: b, d, f, k, m, n, p, s, t, w, z, ð, ɹ, ʃ, ʒ, θ Mid-word consonants: b, bb, bd, bj, bs, bv, bw, bz, bɹ, d, db, dd, dg, dl, dm, dn, dw, dɹ, dʃ, dʤ, f, fd, ff, fh, fk, g, gg, gj, gn, gt, gv, gw, gz, gɹ, gʃ, gʒ, gʤ, gʧ, h, hb, hd, hl, hm, ht, hv, hw, j, jd, jf, jg, jk, jl, js, jt, jz, jð, jʃ, jʒ, k, kf, kj, km, kn, ks, kv, kw, kɹ, kʧ, l, lf, lg, lj, lk, ll, lp, lt, lz, lð, lɹ, lʧ, m, mf, mj, mm, ms, mt, mv, mʤ, n, nj, nk, nw, nð, nɹ, nʃ, p, pf, pl, pn, ps, pw, pɹ, s, sh, sk, sp, sv, sɹ, sθ, t, th, tj, tl, tv, tw, tʃ, v, vl, vm, vn, vv, w, wb, wd, wl, wm, wp, wt, wv, ww, wz, wʤ, z, zg, zh, zk, zm, zp, zt, zw, ð, ðɹ, ŋ, ŋb, ŋd, ŋf, ŋg, ŋk, ŋl, ŋm, ŋn, ŋp, ŋt, ŋθ, ɹ, ɹl, ɹn, ɹp, ɹw, ɹð, ʃ, ʃb, ʃh, ʃk, ʃm, ʃn, ʃs, ʃt, ʒ, ʒb, ʒm, ʤ, ʤl, ʤm, ʧ, ʧg, ʧl, ʧm, ʧn, θ, θd, θf, θj, θw, θɹ Word final consonants: b, d, g, k, l, m, n, p, s, t, v, ŋ, ɹ, ʃ, ʒ, ʤ, θ
  Phonological changes (in order of application): ?
 
    • z → ʦ / Vj_

  Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
ie
ou
ay
j y
æ a
ð dh
ŋ ng
ɑ â
ɔɪ oi
ɛ e
ɪ î
ɹ r
ʃ sh
ʊ o
ʌ û
ʒ zh
ʤ j
ʧ ch
θ th

Grammar


  Main word order: Subject-Object-Verb-Oblique. "Mary opened the door with a key" turns into Mary the door opened with a key. Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun. Adposition: postpositions ?
 

Nouns


  Nouns have seven cases:
    • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
    • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
    • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
    • Dative is the recipeint of something: man gives ball to dog.
    • Locative is the location of something: man goes to town.
    • Ablative is movement away from something: man walks from town.
    • Instrumental is the use of something: man writes with (using) pen.

  Nouns have both a plural affix and dual affix for precisely two things.

Singular


 
Masculine Feminine
Nominative No affix shi /ʃi/ man (when doing the verb) No affix ad /æd/ woman (when doing the verb)
Accusative Suffix -ɑ shiâ /ˈʃiɑ/ (verb done to) man If ends with vowel: Suffix -sheɪ Else: Suffix -aʊsheɪ adaosheî /æˈdaʊsheɪ/ (verb done to) woman
Genitive Suffix -ʌ shiû /ˈʃiʌ/ manʼs If ends with vowel: Suffix -l Else: Suffix -ʊl adol /ˈædʊl/ womanʼs
Dative If ends with vowel: Suffix -mfɑ Else: Suffix -ɛmfɑ shimfâ /ˈʃimfɑ/ to (the/a) man If ends with vowel: Suffix -sθeɪ Else: Suffix -eɪsθeɪ adeîstheî /æˈdeɪsθeɪ/ to (the/a) woman
Locative If ends with vowel: Suffix -b Else: Suffix -aʊb shib /ʃib/ near/at/by (the/a) man If ends with vowel: Suffix -lʊ Else: Suffix -ʊlʊ adolo /æˈdʊlʊ/ near/at/by (the/a) woman
Ablative Suffix -ip shiip /ˈʃiip/ from (the/a) man If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɹðɑ Else: Suffix -ɑɹðɑ adârdhâ /æˈdɑɹðɑ/ from (the/a) woman
Instrumental If ends with vowel: Suffix -s Else: Suffix -ɛs shis /ʃis/ with/using (the/a) man If ends with vowel: Suffix -bzɑ Else: Suffix -ɪbzɑ adîbzâ /æˈdɪbzɑ/ with/using (the/a) woman

Plural

Masculine Feminine
Nominative Suffix -ɔɪn shiɔîn /ˈʃiɔɪn/ men (when doing the verb) If ends with vowel: Suffix -b Else: Suffix -ɑb adâb /ˈædɑb/ women (when doing the verb)
Accusative Suffix -ɑm shiâm /ˈʃiɑm/ (verb done to) men If ends with vowel: Suffix -n Else: Suffix -ɛn aden /ˈædɛn/ (verb done to) women
Genitive If ends with vowel: Suffix -lkɛ Else: Suffix -eɪlkɛ shilke /ˈʃilkɛ/ menʼs If ends with vowel: Suffix -θ Else: Suffix -eɪθ adeîth /ˈædeɪθ/ womenʼs
Dative If ends with vowel: Suffix -d Else: Suffix -ʊd shid /ʃid/ to (the/some) men Suffix -ɑg adâg /ˈædɑg/ to (the/some) women
Locative If ends with vowel: Suffix -θdaʊ Else: Suffix -aɪθdaʊ shithdao /ˈʃiθdaʊ/ near/at/by (the/some) men Suffix -æt adat /ˈædæt/ near/at/by (the/some) women
Ablative If ends with vowel: Suffix -n Else: Suffix -æn shin /ʃin/ from (the/some) men Suffix -ɛ ade /ˈædɛ/ from (the/some) women
Instrumental If ends with vowel: Suffix -ggu Else: Suffix -eɪggu shiggu /ˈʃiggu/ with/using (the/some) men Suffix -u adu /ˈædu/ with/using (the/some) women

Dual

Masculine Feminine
Nominative Suffix -aɪm shiaîm /ˈʃiaɪm/ If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʒmʊ Else: Suffix -eɪʒmʊ adeîzhmo /æˈdeɪʒmʊ/
Accusative If ends with vowel: Suffix -d Else: Suffix -ud shid /ʃid/ Suffix -aɪb adaîb /ˈædaɪb/
Genitive If ends with vowel: Suffix -bɹɔɪ Else: Suffix -ʌbɹɔɪ shibrɔî /ˈʃibɹɔɪ/ Suffix -ɑl adâl /ˈædɑl/
Dative Suffix -ʌt shiût /ˈʃiʌt/ If ends with vowel: Suffix -s Else: Suffix -is adis /ˈædis/
Locative Suffix -ɑp shiâp /ˈʃiɑp/ If ends with vowel: Suffix -pwi Else: Suffix -aʊpwi adaopwi /æˈdaʊpwi/
Ablative If ends with vowel: Suffix -l Else: Suffix -eɪl shil /ʃil/ If ends with vowel: Suffix -b Else: Suffix -æb adab /ˈædæb/
Instrumental If ends with vowel: Suffix -dʃɔɪ Else: Suffix -ʊdʃɔɪ shidshɔî /ˈʃidʃɔɪ/ If ends with vowel: Suffix -k Else: Suffix -ɛk adek /ˈædɛk/

Articles


  Dhaowi has no definite article ‘the’, or indefinite article ‘a’.
 

Pronouns

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Locative Ablative Instrumental
1st singular /tʌ/ I â /ɑ/ me feîth /feɪθ/ mine us /us/ to me zi /zi/ at me dhâb /ðɑb/ from me koth /kʊθ/ with/using me
2nd singular kân /kɑn/ you zhaob /ʒaʊb/ you bɔî /bɔɪ/ yours su /su/ to you shî /ʃɪ/ at you /wɑ/ from you po /pʊ/ with/using you
3rd singular masc ma /mæ/ he ap /æp/ him pɔîr /pɔɪɹ/ his dhaoth /ðaʊθ/ to him /zɪ/ at him tur /tuɹ/ from him paî /paɪ/ with/using him
3rd singular fem îk /ɪk/ she /ɹʌ/ her zil /zil/ hers kâd /kɑd/ to her wuj /wuʤ/ at her it /it/ from her /kɑ/ with/using her
1st plural keî /keɪ/ we kɔîm /kɔɪm/ us dhâj /ðɑʤ/ ours dhɔîg /ðɔɪg/ to us /sɪ/ at us fɔîth /fɔɪθ/ from us zhab /ʒæb/ with/using us
2nd plural dhâ /ðɑ/ you (all) we /wɛ/ you (all) me /mɛ/ yours wi /wi/ to you (all) zed /zɛd/ at you (all) peîzh /peɪʒ/ from you (all) deîn /deɪn/ with/using you (all)
3rd plural masc reîng /ɹeɪŋ/ they beîk /beɪk/ them wij /wiʤ/ theirs îm /ɪm/ to them wet /wɛt/ at them shi /ʃi/ from them i /i/ with/using them
3rd plural fem /nɑ/ they kaod /kaʊd/ them ka /kæ/ theirs daî /daɪ/ to them ze /zɛ/ at them zizh /ziʒ/ from them suv /suv/ with/using them

Possessive determiners

1st singular i /i/ my
2nd singular dhâ /ðɑ/ your
3rd singular masc daî /daɪ/ his
3rd singular fem tip /tip/ her
1st plural /tɪ/ our
2nd plural kân /kɑn/ your
3rd plural masc shî /ʃɪ/ their
3rd plural fem /pʌ/ their

Verbs

Present Past
1st person No affix sîzh /sɪʒ/ Suffix -ʌ sîzhû /ˈsɪʒʌ/
2nd person If ends with vowel: Suffix -fdæ Else: Suffix -ɔɪfdæ sîzhɔîfda /sɪˈʒɔɪfdæ/ If ends with vowel: Suffix -k Else: Suffix -ʌk sîzhûk /ˈsɪʒʌk/
3rd person No affix sîzh /sɪʒ/ Suffix -ɑ sîzhâ /ˈsɪʒɑ/
Dhaowi uses a standalone particle word for future tense:
Future shud /ʃud/ will

Imperfective aspect


  The ‘imperfective’ aspect refers to ongoing actions, such as I am studying and habitual actions, such as I study (every night). Dhaowi uses an affix for imperfective:
Imperfective Suffix -æ sîzha /ˈsɪʒæ/ is studying

Perfect aspect


  The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present. Dhaowi uses the word for ‘finish’ zhâr for the perfect aspect.
 

Numbers


  Dhaowi has a base-20 number system:
  1 - zil 2 - pok 3 - dok 4 - â 5 - na 6 - nan 7 - îk 8 - dos 9 - kayâg 10 - ma 11 - beîbwî 12 - deîrdhâ 13 - thadha 14 - ia 15 - ting 16 - shunggî 17 - ibâ 18 - thiwa 19 - wiksû 20 - tuhmât 21 - tuhmât ti zil “twenty and one” 400 - shulzû “fourhundred” 401 - shulzû ti zil “fourhundred and one” 800 - pok shulzû “two fourhundred” 8000 - ath “eightthousand”
 

Derivational morphology


  Adjective → adverb = Suffix -ɛ
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -nkɛ Else: Suffix -ʌnkɛ
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Suffix -ɪŋ
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -b Else: Suffix -æb
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -p Else: Suffix -ɑp
Noun → verb (to create [noun]) = Suffix -ɛ
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Suffix -ɑ
Verb → adjective (likely to do [verb]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʧni Else: Suffix -ɑʧni
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -n Else: Suffix -ɛn
Verb → noun that verb physically produces (e.g. build → building) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -b Else: Suffix -aʊb
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -p Else: Suffix -ʌp
Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Suffix -ɑp
Diminutive = Suffix -ɪ
Augmentative = If ends with vowel: Suffix -l Else: Suffix -ʌl

Dictionary

4373 Words.
Root Languages

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