Infernal

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: /b k t ŋ ɢ ɣ ɱ ɸ ʈ ʍ ʒ ʤ ʧ β θ χ/

↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Retroflex Velar Labio-velar Uvular
Nasal ɱ ŋ
Stop b t ʈ k ɢ
Affricate ʧ ʤ
Fricative ɸ β θ ʒ ɣ χ
Approximant ʍ

Vowel inventory: /a e i o u y æ ø œ ɐ ɑ ɒ ɔ ɘ ə ɛ ɜ ɞ ɤ ɨ ɪ ɯ ɵ ɶ ʉ ʊ ʌ ʏ/

Front Central Back
High i y ɨ ʉ ɯ u
Near-high ɪ ʏ ʊ
High-mid e ø ɘ ɵ ɤ o
Mid ə
Low-mid ɛ œ ɜ ɞ ʌ ɔ
Near-low æ ɐ
Low a ɶ ɑ ɒ
Syllable structure: (C)(C)V(C)
Stress pattern: Ultimate — stress is on the last syllable
Word initial consonants: b, k, kŋ, t, ŋ, ɢ, ɣ, ɱ, ɸ, ʈ, ʍ, ʒ, ʤ, ʧ, β, θ, χ
Mid-word consonants: b, k, t, ŋ, ɣ, ɱ, ɸ, ʈ, ʒ, ʤ, ʧ, β, θ, χ
Word final consonants: b, k, t, ŋ, ɣ, ɱ, ʒ, ʤ, θ, χ   Phonological changes (in order of application):

  • k → ʧ / _E
  • t → ɾ / _a
  • ɣ → g / C_V
  • o → u / V_
  • θ → h / _ɪ
  • b → w / V_V
  • ʤ → ʧ / i_{u,i}

  Spelling rules:  

Pronunciation Spelling
y
ŋ ng
ɐ
ɑ
ɒ
ɔ aw
ɘ
ə
ɛ
ɜ
ɞ
ɢ q
ɣ
ɤ
ɨ
ɪ
ɯ
ɱ m
ɵ
ɶ
ɸ p
ʈ
ʉ
ʊ
ʌ
ʍ w
ʏ
ʒ z
ʤ j
ʧ ch
β v
θ th
χ kh

Grammar

  Main word order: Subject-Object-Oblique-Verb. "Mary opened the door with a key" turns into Mary the door with a key opened.
Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.
Adposition: postpositions
 

Noun

 
Singular Plural
Masculine No affix
zœkh /ʒœχ/
Suffix -oθ
zœkhoth /ʒœˈχoθ/
Feminine No affix
zœkh /ʒœχ/
If ends with vowel: Suffix -t
Else: Suffix -et
zœkhet /ʒœˈχet/
Neuter No affix
zœkh /ʒœχ/
If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɸʊ
Else: Suffix -ɞɸʊ
zœkhöpù /ʒœχɞˈɸʊ/

Nouns have seven cases: Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man. Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog. Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man. Dative is the recipeint of something: man gives ball to dog. Locative is the location of something: man walks to town. Ablative is movement away from something: man walks from town. Instrumental is the use of something: man writes with (using) pen.

Nominative No affix
zœkh /ʒœχ/
Accusative If ends with vowel: Suffix -kø
Else: Suffix -ɛkø
zœkhëkø /ʒœχɛˈkø/
Genitive Suffix -ʉb
zœkhúb /ʒœˈχʉb/
Dative Suffix -ɯ
zœkhú /ʒœˈχɯ/
Locative Suffix -u
zœkhu /ʒœˈχu/
Ablative If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʤ
Else: Suffix -ʊʤ
zœkhùj /ʒœˈχʊʤ/
Instrumental Suffix -y
zœkhû /ʒœˈχy/

Articles

 
Definite Indefinite
Singular më /ɱɛ/
the
/ɯ/
a
Plural khèth /χɤθ/
the
zú /ʒɵ/
some

Pronouns

 
Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Locative Ablative Instrumental
1st singular pak /ɸak/
I
běth /bɘθ/
me
zû /ʒy/
my, mine
kngùth /kŋʊθ/
to me
ṭùm /ʈʊɱ/ khœ /χœ/ wàz /ʍɑʒ/
2nd singular zěth /ʒɘθ/
you
pú /ɸɯ/
you
ngùz /ŋʊʒ/
your, yours
mǔ /ɱɜ/
to you
ku /ku/ mä /ɱɐ/ /ʊ/
3rd singular masc u /u/
he, it
kawt /kɔt/
him, it
bú /bɨ/
his, its
ngúj /ŋɯʤ/
to him
töm /tɞɱ/ pag̀ /ɸaɣ/ thöm /θɞɱ/
3rd singular fem pùng /ɸʊŋ/
she, it
kngùt /kŋʊt/
her, it
zì /ʒɪ/
her, hers, its
/ʒœ/
to her
/ʌ/ ngúb /ŋɯb/ thú /θɨ/
1st plural kè /kɤ/
we
chú /ʧɯ/
us
kü /kʌ/
our, ours
wä /ʍɐ/
to us
chæm /ʧæɱ/ jòj /ʤəʤ/ qǒt /ɢɒt/
2nd plural bøb /bøb/
you (all)
g̀ü /ɣʌ/
you (all)
kngùb /kŋʊb/
your, yours (all)
wàk /ʍɑk/
to you (all)
khèg̀ /χɤɣ/ më /ɱɛ/ jú /ʤɨ/
3rd plural masc ngü /ŋʌ/
they (masculine)
ngùm /ŋʊɱ/
them (masculine)
kngùg̀ /kŋʊɣ/
their, theirs (masculine)
qim /ɢiɱ/
to them (masculine)
pùm /ɸʊɱ/ bû /by/ ngúng /ŋɯŋ/
3rd plural fem kngøz /kŋøʒ/
they (feminine)
vèth /βɤθ/
them (feminine)
qòm /ɢəɱ/
their, theirs (feminine)
miz /ɱiʒ/
to them (feminine)
ṭú /ʈʉ/ kúkh /kɯχ/ khět /χɘt/

Verbs

  Future tense is indicated with the word:    
Future particle thöm /θɞɱ/
future tense particle
Present Past Remote past
1st singular If ends with vowel: Suffix -θɵ
Else: Suffix -ɘθɵ
chütěthú /ʧʌtɘˈθɵ/
Suffix -ʊɱ
chütùm /ʧʌˈtʊɱ/
If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʈa
Else: Suffix -aʈa
chütaṭa /ʧʌtaˈʈa/
2nd singular If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʤœ
Else: Suffix -ɔʤœ
chütawjœ /ʧʌtɔˈʤœ/
Suffix -ʌ
chütü /ʧʌˈtʌ/
If ends with vowel: Suffix -χ
Else: Suffix -ɐχ
chütäkh /ʧʌˈtɐχ/
3rd singular masc Suffix -ʊ
chütù /ʧʌˈtʊ/
Suffix -ɵ
chütú /ʧʌˈtɵ/
Suffix -ə
chütò /ʧʌˈtə/
3rd singular fem Suffix -ʉ
chütú /ʧʌˈtʉ/
Suffix -æ
chütæ /ʧʌˈtæ/
Suffix -ɐŋ
chütäng /ʧʌˈtɐŋ/
1st plural Suffix -ɯχ
chütúkh /ʧʌˈtɯχ/
If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʈɑ
Else: Suffix -yʈɑ
chütûṭà /ʧʌtyˈʈɑ/
Suffix -ɘɣ
chütěg̀ /ʧʌˈtɘɣ/
2nd plural Suffix -ʉb
chütúb /ʧʌˈtʉb/
If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɱɨ
Else: Suffix -øɱɨ
chütømú /ʧʌtøˈɱɨ/
If ends with vowel: Suffix -βɞ
Else: Suffix -aβɞ
chütavö /ʧʌtaˈβɞ/
3rd plural masc Suffix -ɶb
chütôb /ʧʌˈtɶb/
If ends with vowel: Suffix -χɘ
Else: Suffix -iχɘ
chütikhě /ʧʌtiˈχɘ/
Suffix -ub
chütub /ʧʌˈtub/
3rd plural fem If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɱɑ
Else: Suffix -ɨɱɑ
chütúmà /ʧʌtɨˈɱɑ/
Suffix -ɔʤ
chütawj /ʧʌˈtɔʤ/
If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɱə
Else: Suffix -ɛɱə
chütëmò /ʧʌtɛˈɱə/

Numbers

Kngěmút has a base-20 number system:

1 - zèth
2 - vot
3 - zúz
4 - töpú
5 - ngamökh
6 - qøtǔ
7 - túk
8 - pú
9 - ngút
10 - kú
11 - chakòng
12 - búthàkè
13 - weg̀
14 - bøkhom
15 - ùkǒg̀o
16 - thig̀
17 - g̀æṭu
18 - kngochě
19 - kngěkü
20 - múz
21 - múz jú zèth “twenty and one”
400 - zèth ngùkhachø “one fourhundred”
401 - zèth ngùkhachø jú zèth “one fourhundred and one”
800 - vot ngùkhachø “two fourhundred”
8000 - zèth búm “one eightthousand”

 

Derivational morphology

Adjective → adverb = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʤ
Else: Suffix -ɤʤ
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -b
Else: Suffix -ɔb
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -χ
Else: Suffix -ʌχ
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Suffix -i
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = Suffix -ʏt
Noun → verb (to create [noun]) = Suffix -ɤt
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -θ
Else: Suffix -ɤθ
Verb → adjective (likely to do [verb]) = Suffix -ʌ
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Suffix -oθ
Verb → noun that verb physically produces (e.g. build → building) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -βy
Else: Suffix -ʊβy
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Suffix -ɵŋ
Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Suffix -ɤ
Diminutive = If ends with vowel: Suffix -χ
Else: Suffix -ʌχ
Augmentative = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʒɜ
Else: Suffix -ʌʒɜ

Dictionary

4335 Words.

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