Jobay Language in TAHARJIN'S FLAME | World Anvil
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Jobay

LANGUAGE FAMILY: ALABAG   # SPEAKERS / WORLD RANKING: 600K / #40   SPOKEN IN: Jobaykal - 600K   PERIOD OF USE:   SCRIPT USED:   PARENT LANGUAGE:  
  "...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind..."   Translation: prȕ gù̋d pa̋ pót mgȉ síl prȕ pȉd mgȉ ȁd pìˈga̋ng lű tíˈla̋   Pronunciation: /prȕ gy̋d pa̋ pót mgȉ síl prȕ pȉd mgȉ ȁd pìˈga̋ng lű tíˈla̋     Jobay word order: and stood he holding hat his and turned his face wet to the wind  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: /b d g h k l m n p r s t w/  
↓Manner/Place→BilabialAlveolarVelarGlottal
Nasalmn
Stopp bt dk g
Fricativesh
Trillr
Lateral approximantl
  Co-articulated phonemes  
↓Manner/Place→Labial-velar
Approximantw
  Vowel inventory: /a e i o u y/   Tones: ̋ ̏ ̀ ́ ̄  
FrontBack
Highi yu
High-mideo
Lowa
  Syllable structure: Custom defined
Stress pattern: Second — stress is on the second syllable
Word initial consonants: b, d, g, k, l, m, mg, n, ng, p, pr, s, t, w
Mid-word consonants: b, d, g, gb, gg, gk, gp, h, k, kn, l, m, n, ng, ngk, nl, nr, ns, nt, p, r, s, t, w
Word final consonants: b, d, k, l, n, ng, p, s, t   Phonological changes (in order of application):  
  • n → ŋ / _#
  • t → ʧ / _#
  • b → v / V_
  • d → ∅ / _r
  • a → i / _Ci
  Spelling rules:  
PronunciationSpelling
y
 

Grammar

  Main word order: Verb Subject Object (Prepositional phrase).
"Mary opened the door with a key" turns into Opened Mary the door with a key.
Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned after the noun.
Adposition: prepositions  

Nouns

  Nouns have six cases:
  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
  • Dative is the recipeint of something: man gives ball to dog.
  • Locative is the location of something: man goes to town.
  • Ablative is movement away from something: man walks from town.

Singular

 
MasculineFeminine
NominativeNo affix ȁng /ȁng/ man (when doing the verb) No affix nȁb /nȁb/ woman (when doing the verb)
AccusativePrefix gỳ- gù̀ˈȁng /gỳˈȁng/ (verb done to) man Prefix pȳ- pù̄ˈnȁb /pȳˈnȁb/ (verb done to) woman
GenitivePrefix sí- síˈȁng /síˈȁng/ manʼs Prefix ű- űˈnȁb /űˈnȁb/ womanʼs
DativeIf starts with vowel: Prefix n- Else: Prefix ná- nȁng /nȁng/ to (the/a) man Prefix sȁ- sȁˈnȁb /sȁˈnȁb/ to (the/a) woman
LocativePrefix lȕ- lȕˈȁng /lȕˈȁng/ near/at/by (the/a) man If starts with vowel: Prefix s- Else: Prefix sà- sàˈnȁb /sàˈnȁb/ near/at/by (the/a) woman
AblativePrefix sa̋- sa̋ˈȁng /sa̋ˈȁng/ from (the/a) man If starts with vowel: Prefix p- Else: Prefix pa̋- pa̋ˈnȁb /pa̋ˈnȁb/ from (the/a) woman

Plural

 
MasculineFeminine
NominativeIf starts with vowel: Prefix s- Else: Prefix sȁ- sȁng /sȁng/ men (when doing the verb) If starts with vowel: Prefix t- Else: Prefix tý- tù́ˈnȁb /týˈnȁb/ women (when doing the verb)
AccusativeIf starts with vowel: Prefix k- Else: Prefix kè- kȁng /kȁng/ (verb done to) men If starts with vowel: Prefix k- Else: Prefix kű- kűˈnȁb /kűˈnȁb/ (verb done to) women
GenitiveIf starts with vowel: Prefix mg- Else: Prefix mgý- mgȁng /mgȁng/ menʼs Prefix e̋- e̋ˈnȁb /e̋ˈnȁb/ womenʼs
DativeIf starts with vowel: Prefix p- Else: Prefix pā- pȁng /pȁng/ to (the/some) men If starts with vowel: Prefix mg- Else: Prefix mgỳ- mgù̀ˈnȁb /mgỳˈnȁb/ to (the/some) women
LocativePrefix ȁ- ȁˈȁng /ȁˈȁng/ near/at/by (the/some) men Prefix ngì- ngìˈnȁb /ngìˈnȁb/ near/at/by (the/some) women
AblativeIf starts with vowel: Prefix mg- Else: Prefix mgí- mgȁng /mgȁng/ from (the/some) men If starts with vowel: Prefix p- Else: Prefix pű- pűˈnȁb /pűˈnȁb/ from (the/some) women
 

Articles

 
Definitelú /lú/ the
Indefiniteàb /àb/ a, some
 

Pronouns

 
NominativeAccusativeGenitiveDativeLocativeAblative
1st singular /à/ I mi̋ng /mi̋ng/ me pe̋d /pe̋d/ mine mgù̄p /mgȳp/ to me bá /bá/ at me kù /kù/ from me
2nd singularpàng /pàng/ you (masc) ti̋ /ti̋/ you ngù̋b /ngy̋b/ yours ngù̋n /ngy̋n/ to you lős /lős/ at you mgù́k /mgýk/ from you
3rd singular mascpa̋ /pa̋/ he, it mgi̋ /mgi̋/ him, it /a̋/ his, its /ȉ/ to him, at it sà /sà/ at him, at it mín /mín/ from him, from it
3rd singular fempi̋ /pi̋/ she, it ba̋ /ba̋/ her, it bȁ /bȁ/ hers, its prű /prű/ to her, at it ngōng /ngōng/ at her, at it ngéng /ngéng/ from her, from it
1st pluraldòng /dòng/ we mgù̄ /mgȳ/ us án /án/ ours nge̋ng /nge̋ng/ to us pó /pó/ at us sȉ /sȉ/ from us
2nd pluralngū /ngū/ you all pù̄ /pȳ/ you all ngű /ngű/ yours (pl) we̋n /we̋n/ to you all kù̄ng /kȳng/ at you all nāng /nāng/ from you all
3rd plural masckű /kű/ they (masc) ù̋ng /y̋ng/ them (masc) sȁ /sȁ/ theirs (masc) pȁl /pȁl/ to them (masc) ngù̄t /ngȳt/ at them (masc) /i̋/ from them (masc)
3rd plural femmȉng /mȉng/ they (fem) pù /pù/ them (fem) ngù́ /ngý/ theirs (fem) lù /lù/ to them (fem) na̋ /na̋/ at them (fem) mgù̀s /mgỳs/ from them (fem)
 

Possessive determiners

 
1st singularma̋ /ma̋/ my
2nd singularpù̋ /py̋/ your
3rd singular mascmgȉ /mgȉ/ his
3rd singular femlù /lù/ her
1st pluralpéng /péng/ our
2nd pluralngū /ngū/ your (pl)
3rd plural mascsȁ /sȁ/ their (masc)
3rd plural femngȉd /ngȉd/ their (fem)
 

Verbs

 
FutureIf starts with vowel: Prefix m- Else: Prefix mȁ- mȁnˈge̋t /mȁnˈge̋t/ will learn
  Jobay uses a standalone particle word for past tense:
PastParticle before the verb: sa̋ - sa̋ nge̋t /sa̋ nge̋t/ learned
  Imperfective aspect   The ‘imperfective’ aspect refers to ongoing actions, such as I am learning and habitual actions, such as I learn (something new every day).   Jobay uses an affix for imperfective:  
ImperfectivePrefix í- ínˈge̋t /ínˈge̋t/ learns/is learning
 

Numbers

  Jobay has a base-10 number system:   1 - sàb
2 - ā
3 - tí
4 - lù̀
5 - pűt
6 - sa̋
7 - ngù̋n
8 - nā
9 - mgù̏n
10 - pìk
11 - pìksàb “ten-one”
100 - pi̋ “hundred”
101 - pi̋ sàb “hundred one”
200 - ā pi̋
1000 - pi̋n “thousand”  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = Prefix e̋-
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix k- Else: Prefix kű-
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix l- Else: Prefix lỳ-
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix ng- Else: Prefix ngȍ-
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If starts with vowel: Prefix m- Else: Prefix mȁ-
Noun to verb = If starts with vowel: Prefix b- Else: Prefix bȁ-
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Prefix ȁ-
Tending to = If starts with vowel: Prefix m- Else: Prefix má-
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Prefix si̋-
Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = Prefix mgy̋-
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Prefix ȁ-
Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Prefix pỳ-
Diminutive = Prefix e̋-
Augmentative = If starts with vowel: Prefix pr- Else: Prefix prű-

Dictionary

4459 Words.

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