The Supreme Court is the judicial branch of the Federal Republic's government, it is the guardian of the constitution as well as the laws of the Republic and the highest court in the land. The decisions of the Supreme Court cannot be appealed and serve as case law for the entire justice system.
The federal judicial system is made up of four major components, the criminal courts, the administrative courts, the Supreme Court and the Federal Parole Board. The cases that arrive at the federal level first go through the criminal and administrative courts where they are divided according to their nature, for example, a criminal case will be sent to the criminal court. It can be seized in the case of three situations: during a case appealed by the lower courts, when a lower court requests the judgment of the court since it judges that the case does not fall within its jurisdiction or when the Director of Justice seeks the opinion of the court on the constitutionality of a law. In the case that the court states that it is not, the latter is invalidated.
The same can be done by individuals, organizations or levels of government, but with the difference that the court can reject their request. With the exception of a request for constitutionality made by the Director of Justice, all cases that come to the Supreme Court can be refused to be taken up by the latter. In the event that the judgment is appealed in a specialized courts, the case will be transferred to the Supreme Court whose decision will be final. All of this is headed by the Director of Justice who is appointed by the Supreme Judge who, from a list of three candidates provided by the Federal Civic Service Office to him, chooses one who must be approved by the judges of the Supreme Court by a simple majority.
Heart of the federal judicial system, the Supreme Court renders the final verdict for all cases that arrive there, it must not seek to interpret the law or the constitution, but rather apply it. As said earlier, these decisions cannot be challenged since it is the last level of the Republican judicial system as a whole. Like all courts in the federal justice system, the Supreme Court has nine justices who are appointed for fifteen-year terms based on three nominations provided by an independent commission to the Director of Justice.
The criminal courts take the cases which are dedicated to them, like a constitutional dispute which is dealt with by the Court of Constitutional Law. The cases which are appealed in these, are then transferred to the true Supreme Court which renders a final decision. There are a total of five criminal courts: the Court of Civil Affairs, the Court of Tax Crimes, the Court of Constitutional Law, the Court of Political Crimes and the Court of Criminal Affairs.
Administrative courts take the cases which are dedicated to them, like a labor dispute which is dealt with by the Administrative Tribunal on Labor. The cases which are appealed in these, are then transferred to the true Supreme Court which renders a final decision. There are a total of seven criminal courts which touch upon the areas of labor, electoral affairs, economics, human rights, aerospace, referendum issues and finally military tribunal appeals.
The Federal Parole Board is responsible for studying and ruling on the parole of inmates who have been convicted by a federal court. The tribunal, made up of five judges, must decide whether the inmate can be released from prisons after completing his minimum sentence on criteria such as good behavior or the risk of reoffending; he is free to impose conditions on release.
The aim of the Supreme Court is to enforce the constitution and the laws of the Republic in court decisions. These judgments also make jurisprudence on the lower courts and this one cannot render a decision in contradiction with an old decision of the Supreme Court.
The seat of the Supreme Court as well as the intermediate courts is located in the city of Shanghai on Earth. The building is located in the heart of the city and is spherical in shape with large bay windows at the main entrance. The rest of the building is quite flattened with decorative vegetation and white in color.
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