Dwarven

Legend


Natively known as: mǎlyouf /ˈmɑːljaʊ̯f/

  ...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind... bu doû maj shû nârde chib bu bǔr shû mâsh zoi wîk goushe[alt] Pronunciation: /buː doʊ̯ mæʤ ʃʊ ˈnərde ʧiːb buː bʌr ʃʊ məʃ zɔɪ̯ wɪk ˈgaʊ̯ʃe/ Dwarven word order: and stood holding his hat he and turned his wet face to the wind [/alt]  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: b d f g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x z ŋ ʃ ʤ ʧ θ
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k g q
Affricate ʧ ʤ
Fricative f v θ s z ʃ x h
Approximant j
Trill r
Lateral approximant l
Co-articulated phonemes
↓Manner/Place→ Labial-velar
Approximant w
Vowel inventory: aɪ̯ aʊ̯ e eɪ̯ iː juː o oʊ̯ uː æ ɑː ɔɪ̯ ɔː ə ɪ ɪə̯ ʊ ʌ   Diphthongs: aɪ̯ aʊ̯ eɪ̯ juː oʊ̯ ɔɪ̯ ɪə̯
Front Central Back
High
Near-high ɪ ʊ
High-mid e o
Mid ə
Low-mid ʌ ɔː
Near-low æ
Low ɑː
Syllable structure: (C)V(C) Stress pattern: advanced Word initial consonants: b d f g j l m n p q r t v w z ʃ ʧ θ Mid-word consonants: b bb bn br bt bw bʤ d db dg dm dw dx f ff fm fn fp ft fx g gb gj gk gm gn gr gv gx gz gʃ gʤ gʧ h hb hj hk hl hr hv j jd jf jg jn jr js jt jv jz k kd kj kk km kr kt kw kʧ l lb ld lf lg lh lj lk ll ls lt lv lz m mb mf mh mj mk mn mr ms mt mz mʃ mʤ mʧ n nd nf ng nj nm nt nv nw nʃ nʤ p pf pk pp pz pʃ pʧ q qq qt r rd rg rj rk rl rn rx rz rʧ s sb sd sg sl sr ss st sv t tf tg tp tr ts tv tw tx tz tʧ v vb vg vl vm vn w wd wl wp ww wx wʤ x xd xg xh xm xn xr xv xw xz z zb zk zn zp zv zw ŋ ŋb ŋr ŋt ŋz ŋθ ʃ ʃb ʃk ʃl ʃʧ ʤ ʤl ʤm ʧ ʧg ʧn θ θj θl Word final consonants: b d f g k l n p q r t v w x z ŋ ʃ ʤ θ   Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
aɪ̯ ie
aʊ̯ ou
eɪ̯ ay
i
u
æ a
ɔɪ̯ oi
ɔː aw
ɪə̯ ia
ɪ
ə
ʊ
ɑː
ʌ
j y
x kh
ŋ ng
ʃ sh
ʤ j
ʧ ch
θ th
V₁ː V₁V₁
◌̯

Grammar

  Main word order: Verb Object (Prepositional phrase) Subject. “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Opened the door with a key Mary. Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun. Adposition: prepositions  

Nouns

  Nouns have three cases:
  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
  Nouns form plural with separate plural word:
Plural Particle before the noun: gɪx - gîkh pûwkho /gɪx ˈpʊwxo/ dogs
Nominative No affix pûwkho /ˈpʊwxo/ dog (doing the verb)
Accusative If starts with vowel: Prefix ʃ- Else: Prefix ʃæ- shapûwkho /ˈʃæpʊwxo/ (verb done to) dog
Genitive Prefix ʊ- ûpûwkho /ˈʊpʊwxo/ dogʼs

Articles

  Dwarven has no definite article ‘the’, or indefinite article ‘a’.  

Pronouns

Nominative Accusative Genitive
1st singular loûf /loʊ̯f/ I nǔr /nʌr/ me nuw /nuːw/ mine
2nd singular de /de/ you choût /ʧoʊ̯t/ you she /ʃe/ yours
3rd singular masc chib /ʧiːb/ he, it shǎ /ʃɑː/ him, it fî /fɪ/ his, its
3rd singular fem sho /ʃo/ she, it ǔp /ʌp/ her, it tǔth /tʌθ/ hers, its
1st plural inclusive mu /muː/ we (including you) fîj /fɪʤ/ us (including you) moiq /mɔɪ̯q/ ours (including you)
1st plural exclusive we /we/ we (excluding you) po /po/ us (excluding you) gie /gaɪ̯/ ours (excluding you)
2nd plural chia /ʧɪə̯/ you all bia /bɪə̯/ you all thouz /θaʊ̯z/ yours (pl)
3rd plural bâ /bə/ they fow /fow/ them shû /ʃʊ/ theirs

Possessive determiners

1st singular tû /tʊ/ my
2nd singular fyu /fjuː/ your
3rd singular masc shû /ʃʊ/ his
3rd singular fem mi /miː/ her
1st plural inclusive nia /nɪə̯/ our (including you)
1st plural exclusive fu /fuː/ our (excluding you)
2nd plural shoûw /ʃoʊ̯w/ your (pl)
3rd plural bî /bɪ/ their

Verbs

Present No affix nâk /nək/ learn
Past Prefix nuː- nunâk /ˈnuːnək/ learned
Remote past If starts with vowel: Prefix f- Else: Prefix fæ- fanâk /ˈfænək/ learned (long ago)
Dwarven uses a standalone particle word for future tense:
Future Particle before the verb: bæk - bak nâk /bæk nək/ will learn

Imperfective aspect

  The ‘imperfective’ aspect refers to ongoing actions, such as I am learning and habitual actions, such as I learn (something new every day).   Dwarven uses a standalone particle word for imperfective:
Imperfective Particle before the verb: zeɪ̯ - zay nâk /zeɪ̯ nək/ learns/is learning

Numbers

  Dwarven has a base-20 number system:   1 - la 2 - qîp 3 - dǔ 4 - gǔsh 5 - shǔwwîg 6 - lap 7 - dâ 8 - zak 9 - mî 10 - mâ 11 - newa 12 - raw 13 - dîkhwî 14 - shǎkhoû 15 - tîpfe 16 - tâj 17 - chiaj 18 - qokh 19 - moûju 20 - qiaru 21 - la bu qiaru “one and twenty” 400 - la thia “one fourhundred” 401 - la thia bu la “one fourhundred and one” 800 - qîp thia “two fourhundred” 8000 - la zûv “one eightthousand”  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = If starts with vowel: Prefix d- Else: Prefix deɪ̯- Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix f- Else: Prefix fjuː- Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Prefix oʊ̯- Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Prefix gaɪ̯- Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If starts with vowel: Prefix t- Else: Prefix tjuː- Noun to verb = If starts with vowel: Prefix d- Else: Prefix dʌ- Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix f- Else: Prefix fɔː- Tending to = If starts with vowel: Prefix p- Else: Prefix pæ- Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Prefix ʊ- Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = If starts with vowel: Prefix t- Else: Prefix tɔː- One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Prefix oʊ̯- Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = If starts with vowel: Prefix j- Else: Prefix jə- Diminutive = Prefix ə- Augmentative = Prefix be-    

Written Form

The text is written typically in a counter clockwise pattern but can be adjusted to fit more sounds in, as long as you can in essence read it left to right.

Dictionary

4551 Words.

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