How Combat Works
InitiativeAt the start of a battle, each combatant makes an initiative check. An initiative check is a Dexterity check. Each character applies his or her Dexterity modifier to the roll, as well as other modifiers from feats, spells, and other effects. Characters act in order, counting down from the highest result to the lowest. In every round that follows, the characters act in the same order (unless a character takes an action that results in his or her initiative changing; see Special Initiative Actions). If two or more combatants have the same initiative check result, the combatants who are tied act in order of total initiative modifier (highest first). If there is still a tie, the tied characters should roll to determine which one of them goes before the other. Natural 20: A natural 20 on the initiative roll grants you one extra act for your first turn. Natural 1: A natural 1 on the initiative roll reduces your number of acts by 1 for your first turn (to a minimum of 0). Flat-Footed
At the start of a battle, before you have had a chance to act (specifically, before your first regular turn in the initiative order), you are flat-footed. You can’t use your Dexterity bonus to DV (if any) while flat-footed. Barbarians and rogues of high enough level have the uncanny dodge extraordinary ability, which means that they cannot be caught flat-footed. Characters with uncanny dodge retain their Dexterity bonus to their DV and can make attacks of opportunity before they have acted in the first round of combat. A flat-footed character can’t make attacks of opportunity, unless he has the Combat Reflexes feat. Inaction
Even if you can’t take actions, you retain your initiative score for the duration of the encounter.
Surprise RoundWhen a combat starts, if you are not aware of your opponents and they are aware of you, you’re surprised. Determining Awareness
Sometimes all the combatants on a side are aware of their opponents, sometimes none are, and sometimes only some of them are. Sometimes a few combatants on each side are aware and the other combatants on each side are unaware. Determining awareness may call for Perception checks or other checks. The Surprise Round
If some but not all of the combatants are aware of their opponents, a surprise round happens before regular rounds begin. In initiative order (highest to lowest), combatants who started the battle aware of their opponents can commit up to 2 acts during the surprise round, and gain a reaction when that round is over. You can also take free actions during the surprise round. If no one or everyone is surprised, no surprise round occurs. Unaware Combatants
Combatants who are unaware at the start of battle don’t get to act in the surprise round. Unaware combatants are flat-footed because they have not acted yet, so they lose any Dexterity bonus to DV.
Attack BonusYour attack bonus with a melee weapon is:
Base attack bonus + Strength modifier + Dexterity modifier + size modifierWith a ranged weapon, your attack bonus is:
Base attack bonus + Dexterity modifier + size modifier + range penaltyBase Attack Bonus
A base attack bonus is an attack roll bonus derived from character class and level or creature type and Hit Dice (or combinations thereof). Base attack bonuses increase at different rates for different character classes and creature types. Base attack bonuses gained from different sources, such as when a character is a multiclass character, stack.
Advantage and DisadvantageWhen you have advantage on a d20 roll, you may roll twice and take the highest result. When you have disadvantage on a d20, you must roll twice and take the lowest result. Advantage and disadvantage from different sources may stack multiple times on the same roll. Each pair of advantage and disadvantage cancel each other out. Each additional advantage/disadvantage adds another roll to choose from.
|Attack roll on a charge||Strength and Dexterity skill checks when blind|
|Attack rolls against someone who did a charge||Attack rolls with a broken weapon|
|Attack rolls against a blind target||Skill checks with a broken tool|
|Attack rolls against a broken ship||Sailing checks, saving throws, and on combat maneuver checks for a broken ship|
|Attack rolls against a cowering target||Attack rolls and sight-based Perception checks when dazzled|
|Attack rolls against a flanked target||Initiative checks and opposed Perception checks when deafened|
|Melee attack rolls against a helpless target||Attack rolls when entangled|
|Attack rolls against sighted opponents when invisible||Skill checks made as reactions when fascinated|
|Attack rolls against a pinned target||Attack rolls, saving throws, skill checks, and ability checks when frightened|
|Melee attack rolls against a prone target||Attack rolls and combat maneuver checks, except those made to grapple or escape a grapple, when grappled|
|Attack rolls and combat maneuver checks against a stunned target||Combat maneuver checks to grappled a grappled invisible target|
|Saving throws, skill checks, and ability checks when panicked|
|Melee attack rolls when prone|
|Range attack rolls against a prone target|
|Attack rolls, saving throws, skill checks, and ability checks when shaken|
|Attack rolls, saving throws, skill checks, and ability checks when sickened|
Critical HitsOn a critical hit, you multiply the maximum weapon damage of your attack without any bonuses, and then add your usual bonuses. Unless otherwise specified, the threat range for a critical hit on an attack roll is 20, and the multiplier is ×2. Precision damage (such as from a rogue's sneak attack class feature) and additional damage dice from special weapon qualities (such as flaming) or feats (such as Vital Strike) are not multiplied when you score a critical hit, but they are maximized. If a card from the Critical Hit Deck says that the attack deals normal damage, then the attack's damage is maximized, but not multiplied.
Degrees of Success and FailureWeapon Attack Rolls
For every increment of 10 that your attack roll's result with a weapon above the target's DV, you may roll your weapon damage an additional time and add the results together before adding bonuses from Strength, weapon abilities (such as flaming), precision-based damage, and other damage bonuses. These extra weapon damage dice are not multiplied on a critical hit, but are added to the total. For example, Baroth the dwarf fighter is attacking an orc with a warhammer. The orc's DV is 15, and Baroth's attack roll has a result of 27. His result is 1 increment above the orc's DV, so Baroth gets to roll 2d8 for his warhammer's damage, instead of 1d8. Spell Attack Rolls
For every increment of 10 that your attack roll's result with a spell beats the target's DV, your spell is treated as being 1 caster level higher. For example, Jannilus the elf wizard has a caster level of 2. He casts shocking grasp on an orc who has a touch DV of 11. Jannilus' melee touch attack roll has a result of 22. His result is 1 increment above the orc's touch DV, so Jannilus' shocking grasp is treated as being cast with a caster level of 3 and dealing 3d6, instead of 2d6. Saving Throws against Spells and Spell-Like Abilities
For every increment of 10 that your saving throw result is under the DC, the spell or spell-like ability is treated as being one caster level higher. For every increment of 10 that your saving throw beats the DC, the spell or spell-like ability is treated as one caster level lower. The change in caster level does not affect the spell or spell-like ability's range or area. For example, Baroth is attacked by a fireball cast from a 7th-level wizard. The spell DC is 17, and Baroth's reflex save result is 4. Baroth then receives 8d6 fire damage instead of 7d6. If Baroth's reflex save result was 28, then the fireball would be treated with a caster level of 6, and Baroth would receive half of 6d6 fire damage. A spell that has both an attack roll and a saving throw DC can have its caster level affected by both. For example, Baroth is struck by a ray of enfeeblement spell from a 6th-level wizard. The spell's DC is 15 and Baroth's touch defense is 10. If Baroth's fortitude save is 4 and the wizard's ranged touch attack roll is 20, then the spell is treated with a caster level of 8 (increase of one from the failed save, and another increase of one from the superior attack roll). If Baroth's fortitude save is 25 and the wizard's ranged touch attack roll is 11, then the spell hits, but is treated with a caster level of 5 and Baroth receives a penalty to Strength equal to half of 1d6+2. If Baroth's fortitude save is 16 and the wizard's ranged touch attack roll is 11, then the spell's caster level is unchanged and it hits normally, with Baroth receiving a penalty to Strength equal to half of 1d6+3. Aid Another
For every increment of 10 that your attack roll or skill check beats the DC, you add a +1 bonus to whatever roll you are assisting. However, for every increment of 10 that you fall under, you add a -1 penalty to your assist.
Actions in Combat
Your TurnDuring combat, you are able to use up to 3 acts to complete actions during your turn. Some actions require only 1 act (called simple actions), some require 2 acts (called standard actions), and others require all 3 acts to complete (called full actions). There may also be some exceptional actions requiring 4 or more consecutive acts over multiple consecutive turns; these are call complex actions as a whole. You are also able to use any number of free actions that are possible to do within 6 seconds of combat alongside with your 3 acts. When your turn comes up, before you take any action, you may choose to delay your turn. At the end of any other character's turn, you can choose to end your delay and reenter the initiative order. When you do so, your initiative changes to the point in the initiative order directly after the last acting creature’s turn. Once you have completed your turn, you are able to use 1 reaction until the start of your next turn. When under the effects of haste, you gain 1 additional act each round. This doesn’t stack with any other effect that grants an increase in your number of acts per turn. If you have multiple effects that give you additional acts, you can pick only one such effect to benefit from each turn. You gain all the other benefits of the spell.
Others' TurnReactions are like actions, but can be taken only when they are triggered, and only during other characters’ turns. Usually, reactions are triggered by actions taken by other combatants. For instance, the most common reaction you’ll likely take is the attack of opportunity: an attack you can make when a foe in your threatened area drops his guard (typically by moving, making a ranged attack, or attempting a complicated attack for which he lacks the proper training). Some reactions may provoke attacks of opportunity—the reaction’s subtype, if any, determines whether it provokes attacks of opportunity. You begin with the ability to use only 1 reaction once you have completed your turn until the start of your next one. The Combat Reflexes feat grants you additional reactions equal to your Dexterity bonus.
Converting Other ActionsThe following are guidelines for converting such actions from the default action economy to this one. Free Actions Are Always Free Actions: A free action in the default action economy is a free action in this one. Free actions typically don’t have a subtype, and thus don’t provoke attacks of opportunity. Keep in mind that some free actions are used in conjunction with other actions—that’s still true in this system. To use such a free action, you must take the other action it supports. Swift Actions Are Always Simple Actions (1 act): A swift action in the default action economy is always a simple action in this system. You need commit only 1 action to perform that action. In rare cases, a GM might want to limit a given swift action to only once per turn. Move Actions Are Always Simple Actions (1 act): A move action in the default action economy is always a simple action in this system. Standard-Action Attacks Are Typically Simple Actions (1 act): Most actions that involve an attack roll or a combat maneuver check as a standard action in the default economy are simple actions in this system. For combat maneuvers that can’t be substituted for one attack in a full-attack action and other complicated attacks, consider making them standard actions. Look at combat maneuvers such as drag, grapple, and reposition for examples of such actions. Standard-Action Supernatural and Spell-Like Abilities Are Standard Actions (2 acts): Typically, these actions are standard actions. Supernatural abilities tend not to have a subtype (unless they involve movement or attacking, in which case it might be fitting to grant them those subtypes), and spell-like abilities typically have the provoke subtype. Full-Attack and Full-Round Actions Are Full Actions (3 acts): Full-attack and full-round actions are nearly all full actions that require a consecutive 3-act commitment. (See the charge standard action for an example of one that doesn’t require 3 acts.)
Action TypesAn action with the Provoke subtype triggers attack of opportunities from enemies within range of you. The attack is resolved before you start your action. You may avoid triggering attack of opportunities with actions of this subtype under certain circumstances as described in the action's description.
Simple Actions (1 act)The following are some of the more common actions. To take any of them, you need to commit only 1 action (though some can be taken as free actions under special circumstances).
Aid AnotherIn melee combat, you can help a friend attack or defend by distracting or interfering with an opponent. If you’re in position to make a melee attack on an opponent that is engaging a friend in melee combat, you can attempt to aid your friend with 1 action. You make an attack roll against DV 10. If you succeed, your friend gains either a +1 bonus on his next attack roll against that opponent or a +1 bonus to DV against that opponent’s next attack (your choice), as long as that attack comes before the beginning of your next turn. For every 10 that you beat the DV, the bonus you provide increases by 1. Multiple characters can aid the same friend, and similar bonuses stack. You can also use this simple action to help a friend in other ways, such as when he is affected by a spell, or to assist another character’s skill check.
Attack Action, MeleeWith a normal melee weapon, you can strike any opponent within 5 feet. (Opponents within 5 feet are considered adjacent to you.) Some melee weapons have reach, as indicated in their descriptions. With a typical reach weapon, you can strike opponents 10 feet away, but you can’t strike adjacent foes (those within 5 feet). You add your Strength and Dexterity modifiers to your melee attack rolls and damage. When you wield a weapon of the same size category as you or larger with two hands, add 1.5 times your Strength bonus and 1.5 times your Dexterity to the damage rolls on melee attacks (in addition to the increased damage die from the Two-Hand weapon trait if present). Negative Strength or Dexterity modifiers are never multiplied. A weapon wielded in your off-hand gains only half of your Strength bonus and half of your Dexterity bonus to the damage rolls on melee attacks. Negative Strength or Dexterity modifiers are not halved, and are fully applied. Using two hands to wield a light weapon gives no advantage on damage; the Strength and Dexterity bonuses apply as though the weapon were held in your main hand only. You can alter your attack in several ways. See Special Attacks below to see how.
Attack Action, NaturalAttacks made with natural weapons, such as claws and bites, are melee attacks that can be made against any creature within your reach (usually 5 feet). These attacks are made using your full attack bonus and deal an amount of damage that depends on their type. If your natural attack is a melee attack, add your Strength and Dexterity modifiers to your attack roll. On a successful hit, add 1.5 times your Strength bonus and 1.5 times your Dexterity bonus to the damage; Strength and Dexterity penalties are not multiplied. If your natural attack is a ranged attack, add your Strength, Dexterity, and Wisdom modifiers to your attack roll. On a successful hit, add 1.5 times your Strength bonus, 1.5 times your Dexterity bonus, and 1.5 your Wisdom modifier to the damage; Strength, Dexterity, and Wisdom penalties are not multiplied. You can make attacks with natural weapons in combination with attacks made with a melee weapon and unarmed strikes, so long as a different limb is used for each attack. For example, you cannot make a claw attack and also use that hand to make attacks with a longsword. You can use the Two-Weapon Fighting feat and the Flurry of Blows ability with two different natural weapons (such as a bite and a tail), a pair of natural weapons (such as 2 claws), or a combination of a natural weapon and a valid melee weapon or unarmed strike. Natural weapons count as light weapons.
Attack Action, RangedWith a ranged weapon, you can shoot or throw at any target that is within the weapon’s maximum range and in line of sight. The maximum range for a thrown weapon is five range increments. For projectile weapons, it is 10 range increments. Some ranged weapons have shorter maximum ranges, as specified in their descriptions. If your weapon fires a projectile, you add your Dexterity and Wisdom modifiers to your ranged attack rolls and damage. If you are throwing a weapon as a ranged attack, you add your Strength, Dexterity, and Wisdom modifiers to your ranged attack rolls and damage. You can alter your attack in several ways. See Special Attacks below to see how. Shooting or Throwing into a Melee: If you shoot or throw a ranged weapon at a target engaged in melee with your ally, you have disadvantage on your attack roll. Two characters are engaged in melee if they are enemies of each other and either threatens the other. (An unconscious or otherwise immobilized character is not considered engaged unless he is actually being attacked.) If your target (or the part of your target you’re aiming at, if it’s a big target) is at least 10 feet away from the nearest ally, you can avoid the disadvantage, even if the creature you’re aiming at is engaged in melee with an ally. There is no penalty for firing at a creature that is three size categories larger than your allies it is engaged with. If you have the Precise Shot feat, you don’t take this penalty. Stray Shot
When a range attacker misses his intended target, his projectile continues its trajectory, and may hit another creature beyond his original target. To determine which creatures may be hit by the stray shot, draw a line from the middle of the attacker's square to the middle of the intended target's square, and continue that line until it hits an obstacle. Creatures in any square that the line passes through after passing through the intended target's square may be hit by the stray shot. Stray shots are resolved in the order of the closest creature to the intended target first, followed by the next closest, and so on until the shot hits a creature or reaches its range limit. Stray shots are resolved using the attacker's original attack roll against the potential target's Defense. A potential target gains a +4 cover bonus to Defense because of soft cover from the original target. Stray shots fired from projectile weapons except for firearms, and thrown weapons except for splash weapons, continue their trajectory until the end of their current range increment. The projectile then falls to the ground after this distance if it does not strike any creature. Stray shots from firearms continue their trajectory for its current range increment, and four additional range increments after or up to the firearm's maximum range (five for simple firearms, ten for martial firearms), whichever reaches first.
Attack, Unarmed (Provoke)Unarmed strikes involve attacks using non-lethal parts of your body, such as your fists, feet, head, elbows, and so on. Any part of your body counts as an unarmed strike, so you can make such attacks even if your both of your hands are holding objects, or even bound. You need to be rendered helpless to prevent you from using unarmed strikes. Unarmed strikes count as light weapons. You can alter your attack in several ways. See Special Attacks below to see how. Attacking with unarmed strikes is much like attacking with a melee weapon, except for the following: Attacks of Opportunity: Attacking unarmed provokes an attack of opportunity from the character you attack, provided she is armed. The attack of opportunity comes before your attack. An unarmed attack does not provoke attacks of opportunity from other foes, nor does it provoke an attack of opportunity from an unarmed foe. An unarmed character can’t take attacks of opportunity (but see “Armed” Unarmed Attacks, below). “Armed” Unarmed Attacks: Sometimes a character’s or creature’s unarmed attack counts as an armed attack. A monk, a character with the Improved Unarmed Strike feat, a spellcaster delivering a touch attack spell, and a creature with natural physical weapons all count as being armed (see Natural Attack). Note that being armed counts for both offense and defense (the character can make attacks of opportunity). Unarmed Strike Damage: An unarmed strike from a Medium character deals 1d3 points of bludgeoning damage (plus your Strength modifier, as normal). A Small character’s unarmed strike deals 1d2 points of bludgeoning damage, while a Large character’s unarmed strike deals 1d4 points of bludgeoning damage. All damage from unarmed strikes is nonlethal damage. You can increased your unarmed strike damage by taking the Greater Unarmed Strike feat. Dealing Lethal Damage: You can specify that your unarmed strike will deal lethal damage before you make your attack roll, but you take a –4 penalty on your attack roll. If you have the Improved Unarmed Strike feat, you can deal lethal damage with an unarmed strike without taking a penalty on the attack roll.
Cast a Swift Spell (Provoke)You cast a single spell or use a single spell-like ability with a casting time of 1 swift action. If you provoke attacks of opportunity when casting the spell, you don’t provoke attacks a second time when making a ranged attack roll as part of the spell.
Combat Maneuver: Bull RushYou push a foe that is at most one size category larger than you straight back. Attempt a bull rush combat maneuver check. If you’re successful, you push the foe back 5 feet. For every 5 by which your check exceeds your foe’s CMD, you push that foe back 5 additional feet. You can choose to move along with the target if you have the necessary acts to do so. The target’s movement does not provoke attacks of opportunity unless you have the Improved Bull Rush feat.
Combat Maneuver: DisarmYou attempt to disarm your foe. If your disarm combat maneuver check is successful, your foe drops one item of your choice that it’s carrying or wielding (even if it’s holding the item with two hands). If you exceed your foe’s CMD by 10 or more, the foe drops two items of your choice. If you fail your combat maneuver by 10 or more, you drop any weapon you were using to disarm your foe.
Combat Maneuver: OverrunYou move up to your speed, and over the course of this action you attempt to move through the space of a foe that is no more than one size category larger than you. When attempting to move through your foe’s space, your foe can choose to allow you to pass through and let you continue your movement. If the foe doesn’t choose to or can’t let you move past, you attempt an overrun combat maneuver check. If you succeed, you move through the target’s space. If your check exceeds your foe’s CMD by 5 or more, you move through the target’s space and the target is knocked prone. If the target has more than two legs, it gains a bonus to its CMD against overrun combat maneuvers equal to +2 for each additional leg it possesses. If you fail this check, your movement stops in the space directly in front of the opponent.
Combat Maneuver: SunderYou try to sunder an item held or worn by your foe. Attempt a sunder combat maneuver check. If you succeed, you deal damage to the item normally. Damage that exceeds the item’s hardness is subtracted from its hit points. If an object has less than or equal to half its total hit points remaining, it gains the broken condition. If the damage you deal reduces the object to 0 or fewer hit points, you can choose to destroy the object. If you choose not to destroy it, the object is left with only 1 hit point.
Combat Maneuver: TripYou try to trip your opponent. Attempt a trip combat maneuver check against a foe that is no more than one size category larger than you. If you succeed, you knock the target prone. If you fail by 10 or more, you are knocked prone instead. If the target has more than two legs, it gains a +2 bonus to its CMD against this attempt for each additional leg it possesses.
Control a Frightened MountYou attempt to control a mount that’s not trained for combat in battle. If you fail the Ride check, you can’t try again until your next turn.
Crawl (Provoke)You crawl 5 feet while prone.
DemoralizeUsing the Intimidate skill, you shout threats at a foe within 30 feet that can see and hear you, attempting to demoralize it.
Direct or Redirect a SpellIf a spell allows you to redirect an effect to a new target, you take this action to do so.
Dismiss a SpellYou dismiss the effects of a dismissible spell.
Draw or Sheathe a Weapon (Provoke)You draw a weapon so that you can use it in combat, or put it away so that you have a free hand. This action also applies to weapon-like objects carried in easy reach, such as wands. If your weapon or weapon-like object is stored in a pack or otherwise out of easy reach, treat this action as retrieving a stored item. If you have a base attack bonus of +1 or higher, you may draw a weapon as a free action combined with the Move simple action. If you have the Two-Weapon Fighting feat, you can draw two light or one-handed weapons in the time it would normally take you to draw one. If you have the Quick Draw, you can draw a weapons as a free action without provoking an attack of opportunity. Drawing ammunition for use with a ranged weapon (such as arrows, bolts, sling bullets, or shuriken) is a free action, and does not provoke attacks of opportunity.
Escape a GrappleYou attempt to escape or gain control of a grapple by attempting either an Escape Artist check or a combat maneuver check. The second time in a turn you take this action, you take a –5 penalty on the check. The third time, you take a –10 penalty on the check.
Handle an AnimalYou command an animal to perform a trick it knows by attempting a Handle Animal check. Some class abilities let characters attempt this as a free action.
Initiate BoostYou initiate a readied boost maneuver.
Load a Hand Crossbow or Light Crossbow (Provoke)You load a hand crossbow or a light crossbow with a bolt. If you have the Rapid Reload feat with the weapon you are reloading, this is a free action.
Load a Martial Firearm (Provoke)You load a single cartridge of a one-handed or two-handed martial firearm. If you have the Rapid Reload feat for that firearm, this is reduced to a free action, but you are limited to up to three cartridges during your turn.
Lower or Reactivate Spell ResistanceYou lower any spell resistance that is active, or reactivate a spell resistance that has been lowered.
Manipulate an Item (Provoke)You retrieve or store an item in a container on your person; pick up an item; or move a heavy object. Sometimes, the GM might rule that manipulating an item is a complex action and determine the number of actions that must be committed to succeed. Based on what you want to do, those actions may need to be committed consecutively.
Move (Provoke)You move up to your speed. Typically you move across the land at either a walk or a sprint, but this covers other movement modes, including burrowing, flying, jumping, and swimming.
Mount or Dismount a Steed (Provoke)You mount or dismount a steed. You can do this as a free action by attempting a DC 20 Ride check; failure means you provoke attacks of opportunity.
Multiweapon FightingWhen fighting with a double weapon or with a weapon in one or more of your off-hands, you can make multiple attacks with a penalty to each attack roll. See Table: Multiweapon Fighting Penalties to see what penalty to apply. The first attack you choose to make is your main hand; all others are off-hand. You can normally use this action only once per turn unless you you have the Multiweapon Fighting feat and meet certain requirements. Off-hand attacks apply only half of your Strength and Dexterity bonuses to damage (penalties are not halved). Natural attacks are considered to be light weapons.
Table: Multiweapon Fighting Penalties
|Off-hand weapon is light||–4||–8|
|Multiweapon Fighting feat||–4||–4|
|Off-hand weapon is light and Multiweapon Fighting feat||–2||–2|
Ready a Simple Action or an Complex ActionYou ready a single simple or complex action that you can take before the start of your next turn as a reaction. You must designate a definite trigger for that reaction (such as “if a foe attacks me,” “if a foe casts a spell,” or “if a foe moves adjacent to me”), and you must have enough acts left to complete the action you ready. Once you ready an action, your turn ends. If you don’t take the action you readied as a reaction by the start of your next turn, you lose that reaction.
Ready or Drop a Shield (Provoke)You either strap a shield to your arm to gain its shield bonus to DV or unstrap and drop the shield. If you have a base attack bonus of +1 or higher, you can do either of these as a free action when you take the Move simple action.
Recall KnowledgeYou attempt a Lore check to recall a detail in one of your fields of study, or to identify a monster and its abilities.
SearchYou use Perception to search a room for salient hidden creatures or clues, or you make a detailed search of a 10-foot-square area to detect traps, triggers, hidden objects, or footprints. When you search an area, this action has the complex subtype.
Spell Combat (Provoke)You make an attack roll with a light or one-handed melee weapon, then cast a spell on the magus spell list with a casting time of 1 standard action. You take a –2 penalty on the melee attack, but the spell is cast regardless of whether the attack hits. If you cast the spell defensively, you can subtract your Intelligence bonus from the result of the attack roll to add the same value as a circumstance bonus on the concentration check. You must have the spell combat class feature to take this action, and can take this action only once per turn. To take this action, you must have one hand free. You can’t also take the following actions this turn: cast a standard-action spell or cast a 1-round-action spell.
Stand Up (Provoke)You stand up from being prone.
Steady Aim (Provoke)You spend one act to steady your aim and grant a +4 bonus to your next ranged attack. You can choose to spend additional consecutive acts until your ranged attack, increasing the bonus by +4 each additional act. These acts can be split across multiple turns, but must be taken consecutively, and the ranged attack must be taken on the next act in order to gain the bonus.
StepYou move 5 feet that does not provoke an attack of opportunity. You can only take a Step if your movement isn’t hampered by difficult terrain or darkness. Any creature with a speed of 5 feet or less can’t take a Step, since moving even 5 feet requires a Move simple action for such a slow creature. You may not take a Step using a form of movement for which you do not have a listed speed.
Use a Swift AbilityYou use a single ability that can be used as a swift action.
Standard Actions (2 acts)The following is a list of the main standard actions in this system. These actions require 2 consecutive acts.
Cast a Standard-Action Spell (Provoke)You cast a spell or manifest a power with a casting time of 1 standard action. If you provoke attacks of opportunity when casting the spell, you don’t provoke attacks a second time when making the ranged attack roll.
Charge (Provoke)You move up to twice your speed directly toward a designated foe within your line of sight, ending the move in the closest space from which you can attack that foe. You must have a clear path to your foe and be at least 10 ft. away from them. If anything hinders or blocks your movement along the path of a charge, you can’t take the charge action. As long as you have a base attack bonus of +1 or higher, you can draw a weapon as a free action at any point during the charge. At the end of the charge, you gain advantage on any melee attacks, bull rush combat maneuver checks, or overrun combat maneuver checks you attempt until the end of your turn, as long as those attacks or combat maneuver checks are made against the creature you designated when you charged. Enemies gain advantage on attack rolls against you when you start your charge until the start of your next turn.
Combat Maneuver: Dirty TrickYou attempt a dirty trick combat maneuver check. If you’re successful, the target gains one of the following conditions: blinded, dazzled, deafened, entangled, shaken, or sickened. This condition lasts for 1 round. For every 5 by which your combat maneuver check exceeds the target’s CMD, the condition lasts for 1 additional round. The target or an ally adjacent to the target can remove the condition by committing 1 act. Removing a condition applied by a dirty trick does not provoke attacks of opportunity.
Combat Maneuver: DragYou try to drag a foe that is no more than one size category larger than you 5 or more feet in a straight line. Attempt a drag combat maneuver check. If you succeed, you move 5 feet in one direction, and your opponent moves with you, staying adjacent to you. For every 5 by which your combat maneuver check exceeds the target’s CMD, you can move 5 additional feet in the same direction. You can’t drag a creature a distance greater than your speed with this advanced action. The target’s movement does not provoke attacks of opportunity unless you have the Improved Drag feat.
Combat Maneuver: Grapple (Provoke)You initiate a grapple against a creature within your melee reach. Humanoid creatures without two free hands attempting to grapple a foe take a –4 penalty on the combat maneuver roll. If successful, both you and the target gain the grappled condition. If you successfully grapple a creature that is not adjacent to you, move that creature to an adjacent open space (if no space is available, your grapple fails). Although both creatures have the grappled condition, you can, as the creature that initiated the grapple, release the grapple as a free action, removing the condition from both you and the target. If you do not release the grapple, you must continue to make a check each round to maintain the hold (See Combat Maneuver: Grapple, Continued below). If you have the Improved Grapple feat, then you can initiate a grapple as a simple action.
Combat Maneuver: Grapple, ContinuedYou continue a grapple. If you initiated the grapple, you must either take this action at the start of each subsequent turn or end the grapple as a free action. When you take this action, you attempt a grapple combat maneuver check with a +5 bonus. If you’re successful, you can either move, deal damage to, or pin the creature you are grappling. Alternatively, you can attempt to tie up the creature with a rope. Move: If you decide to move your target, immediately after the grapple, you can take a move simple action and move the creature you are grappling with you. At the end of that move action, you can place your target in any space adjacent to you. If you attempt to place your foe in a hazardous location, the target can attempt to free itself from the grapple as a reaction, and gains a +4 bonus on that attempt. Damage: If you decide to damage your opponent, you deal an amount of damage equal to that of your unarmed strike, natural attack, armor spikes, or a light or one-handed weapon you are holding. You can choose to make this damage either lethal or nonlethal. Pin: If you decide to pin your target, the target gains the pinned condition. You continue to have the grappled condition, but lose your Dexterity bonus to DV until you are no longer pinning the target. Tie Up a Grappled or Pinned Creature: If you have a rope in your hands, and you are grappling or pinning a foe, you can attempt a grapple combat maneuver check at a –10 penalty to tie up that foe. If you’re successful, the ropes pin the creature until they are removed or the pinned foe succeeds at a combat maneuver check or Escape Artist check (DC = 20 + your CMB). If you have the Improved Grapple feat, then you can continue a grapple as a simple action.
Combat Maneuver: RepositionYou attempt a reposition combat maneuver check against a foe that is no more than one size category larger than you. If you succeed, you force that foe to move 5 feet. For every 5 by which your check exceeds the target’s Combat Maneuver Defense, you can move that target an additional 5 feet. When you reposition the target, it must stay within your threatened area during all but the last 5 feet of the reposition movement, which can be to a space adjacent to your threatened area.
Combat Maneuver: StealYou attempt a steal combat maneuver check against a foe within your melee reach (not counting expanded reach from reach weapons). You must have at least one hand free, and must select the item to be stolen before attempting the check. Items fastened to a foe grant the foe a +5 (or higher) bonus to its CMD against this attempt, and items securely worn can’t be stolen in this way. If you’re successful, you take the item you chose from the opponent.
Concentrate to Maintain an Active SpellYou concentrate to maintain an active spell or power.
Drink a Liquid or Apply an Oil (Provoke)You drink a potion, elixir, or another liquid, or apply an oil, gaining that liquid or oil’s effects when the drinking or application is complete.
Escape from a Net (Provoke)You attempt to escape from a net entangling you. Attempt a DC 20 Escape Artist check; if you succeed, you escape from the net.
Extinguish Flames (Provoke)When on fire, you can roll on the ground or smother the fire with cloaks or similar objects to attempt another saving throw with a +4 bonus. If the saving throw is successful, you are no longer on fire.
FeintYou use Bluff to attempt a feint against an opponent. If you succeed, that opponent is denied their Dexterity bonus to DV for the next attack you make against it this turn. The DC of this check is equal to 10 + your opponent's base attack bonus + your opponent's Wisdom modifier. If your opponent is trained in Sense Motive, the DC is instead equal to 10 + your opponent's Sense Motive bonus, if higher. This attack must be made on or before your next turn. When feinting against a non-humanoid you take a –4 penalty. Against a creature of animal Intelligence (1 or 2), you take a –8 penalty. Against a creature lacking an Intelligence score, it's impossible. Feinting in combat does not provoke attacks of opportunity. If you have the Improved Feint feat, feint becomes a simple action.
Initiate Standard StrikeYou initiate a strike maneuver with an initiation action of standard.
Load a Heavy or Repeating Crossbow (Provoke)You load a bolt in a heavy crossbow or place a new case of 5 bolts into a repeating crossbow. If you have the Rapid Reload feat for that crossbow, this is reduced to a simple action.
Lock or Unlock a Weapon in a Locked Gauntlet (Provoke)You either lock a weapon into a locked gauntlet or unlock a weapon already fastened to a locked gauntlet.
Prepare a Flask of Oil as a Splash Weapon (Provoke)You prepare a flask of oil with a fuse so that you can throw it as a splash weapon.
Provide First Aid, Treat a Wound, or Treat Poison (Provoke)You provide first aid, treat a wound, or treat poison using the Heal skill.
Sleight of Hand (Provoke)You use Sleight of Hand to palm an object or perform some feat of legerdemain. You can attempt this as a simple action by taking a –20 penalty on the check. In either case, if your check fails by 5 or more, you provoke an attack of opportunity from any creature from which you are trying to take an object with this action.
Spellstrike (Provoke)You cast a spell from the magus spell list with a range of touch, but instead of making a touch attack, you make a melee attack with a weapon you are wielding. If the attack hits, the attack deals its normal damage as well as any effects of the spell. You must have the spellstrike class feature to take this action.
Total DefenseYou get a bonus to your DV equal to 5 + 1/2 of your base attack bonus until the start of your next turn. Your DV improves at the start of this action. You can combine Total Defense with Fighting Defensively and with the benefit of the Combat Expertise special attack. You cannot make attacks of opportunity while using Total Defense.
Use a Command Word ItemYou activate a magic item with a command word.
Use a Spell Completion Item (Provoke)You cast a spell with a casting time of 1 standard action from a spell completion item. This is not an attack action, even if the spell requires a ranged attack roll. If you provoke attacks of opportunity when casting the spell, you do not provoke further attacks when making the ranged attack roll.
Use a Spell Trigger ItemYou cast a spell from a spell trigger item. This is not an attack action, even if the spell requires a ranged attack roll. If you provoke attacks of opportunity when casting the spell, you do not provoke further attacks when making the ranged attack roll.
Use a Standard-Action Supernatural AbilityYou use a supernatural ability that can be used as a standard action in the default action economy.
Full Actions (3 acts)The following is a list of the main full actions in this system. These actions require 3 consecutive acts. A full action begins and ends during your turn.
Administer a Potion or Elixir, or Apply an Oil (Provoke)You carefully administer a potion or elixir, or apply an oil, to an unconscious creature.
Appraise a Hoard (Provoke)You examine a treasure hoard to determine the most valuable item in the hoard.
Cast a Full Action Spell (Provoke)You cast a spell or manifest a power with a casting time of 1 full action. If you provoke attacks of opportunity when casting the spell, you don’t provoke attacks a second time when making the ranged attack roll.
Coup de Grace (Provoke)You can use a melee weapon to deliver a coup de grace to a helpless or pinned opponent. You can also use a bow, crossbow or firearm, provided you are adjacent to the target. You automatically hit and score a critical hit. If the defender survives the damage, he must make a Fortitude save (DC 10 + damage dealt) or die. A rogue also gets her extra sneak attack damage against a helpless or pinned opponent when delivering a coup de grace. You can't deliver a coup de grace against a creature that is immune to critical hits. You can deliver a coup de grace against a creature with total concealment, but doing this requires 6 acts (to "find" the creature once you've determined what square it's in, and to deliver the coup de grace). A coup de grace can be delivered to inflict nonlethal damage. A nonlethal coup de grace functions the same way as when dealing lethal damage, except that if the target remains conscious after receiving the nonlethal critical hit damage, he must make a Fortitude save (DC 10 + damage) or fall unconscious. Note, if the nonlethal damage exceeds twice the target's maximum hit points, then the excess damage is considered lethal. This damage may still render the target unconscious, or even kill him.
Detect Forgery (Provoke)You use Linguistics to examine a single page to detect a forgery.
Initiate Full-Attack StrikeYou initiate a strike maneuver with an initiation action of full-attack or full-round.
Light a Torch (Provoke)You light a torch with a flint and steel.
Load a One-Handed Simple Firearm (Provoke)You load a single barrel of a one-handed simple firearm. If you have the Rapid Reload feat for that firearm or load a cartridge, this is reduced to a standard action. This is reduced to a simple action if you use both.
Push an AnimalYou attempt a Handle Animal check to get an animal to perform a trick it doesn’t know but is physically capable of doing, or to push the animal to its limits. If the animal has taken hit point damage, nonlethal damage, or ability score damage, the DC of this check increases by 2. Characters with animal companions, such as druids or rangers, can push their companions as simple actions instead.
Run (Provoke)You move four times your speed in a straight line. When you do, you lose your Dexterity bonus to DV until the start of your next turn. You can run for a number of rounds equal to your Constitution score; each round after that, you must succeed at a Constitution check to continue running (DC = 10 + 1 per previous check). If you fail, you stop running and are staggered for a number of minutes equal to 10 – your Constitution bonus (minimum 1).
Use a Touch Spell on up to Six Allies (Provoke)If you cast a spell that allows you to touch targets over multiple rounds, this action allows you to touch up to six willing creatures within your melee reach (not counting expanded reach from reach weapons).
1-Round Actions (3 acts)1-round actions require all 3 acts of your turn, and you are considered to still be performing your action until the start of your next turn. You are unable to take any reactions during the start of your action until the start of your next turn. The effects of your 1-round action occurs at the start of your next turn. Alternatively, you can split a 1-round action across two turns as long as starting the 1-round action in your first turn is done with your last act. You spend the last two acts of your first turn to start your 1-round action, be unable to take reactions after, and then spend your first act of your next turn to complete the action. The same applies when spending the last act of your first turn, then spending your first two acts on your next turn.
Cast a 1-round Action Spell (Provoke)You cast a spell or manifest a power with a casting time of 1 round. If you provoke attacks of opportunity when casting the spell, you don’t provoke attacks a second time when making a ranged attack roll as part of the spell.
Load a Two-Handed Simple Firearm (Provoke)You load a single barrel of a two-handed simple firearm. If you have the Rapid Reload feat for that firearm or load a cartridge, this is reduced to a full action. This is reduced to a standard action if you use both.
Complex Actions (4 or more acts)The following is a list of the main complex actions in this system. These actions typically require 4 or more acts, or do not fit neatly in the 3-act turn system. See each actions description for the number of acts required.
Disable Device (Provoke)You attempt to unlock a lock or disable another device with the Disable Device skill. For every round the action takes, you must commit 3 acts. These acts may or may not need to be consecutive based on the nature of the device. For example, acts committed to open a lock or disable a trap must nearly always be consecutive. The GM may rule that some complex devices take more than 3 acts to disable; for example, a complex arcane machine that will cause a devastating calamity in 1 minute could take 10 acts to disable, though the acts may not need to be consecutive.
Find Tracks (Provoke)You use Survival to find tracks. This requires at least 3 consecutive acts and may take more, as determined by the GM. If you lose a trail, it takes longer to try again.
Free Actions (0 acts)Unless stated otherwise in the action’s description, a free action can be taken only on your turn. Theoretically, you can take as many free actions in a turn as you wish, though the GM may apply reasonable limitations on free actions. For instance, although speaking is a free action, since a round is only 6 seconds in length, your GM might stop you from spouting off a long diatribe during your turn (or between turns), and may even rule that if you are casting a rather complex spell with a verbal component, you aren’t able to verbally warn your companions of some danger that you notice before they do. Typically, this limitation shouldn’t be applied to reloading ranged weapons as a free action. Sometimes a free action stipulates that you can take it only in conjunction with another action, or at a certain time during your turn. In these cases, you must take any requisite actions before you can take the free action. The following are the main free actions of this system.
Cast DefensivelyWhen casting a spell, you can take a free action to do so defensively. You must attempt a concentration check (DC = 15 + double the spell’s level). If you succeed, that spell loses the complex subtype for that casting. If you fail, you lose the spell.
Cease Concentrating on a SpellYou cease concentrating on a spell that you have cast.
Draw and Nock an ArrowYou draw and nock an arrow to a longbow or shortbow.
Drop an ItemYou drop a held item into a square within your space or within your melee reach (not counting the expanded reach from a reach weapon, unless you are dropping that weapon).
Drop ProneYou drop prone within your space.
Fighting DefensivelyAt the start of your turn, you can choose to fight defensively when attacking. You take disadvantage on all attack rolls in exchange to receiving a bonus to DV equal to your base attack bonus until the start of your next turn. You can combine Fighting Defensively with the Total Defense action and with the benefit of the Combat Expertise special attack.
Identify a Spell Being CastYou use Spellcraft to identify a spell being cast. Unlike other free actions, you can take this action even when it is not your turn.
Initiate or Change StanceYou initiate or change your stance. You can normally perform this action once per turn.
Prepare Spell Components or a Spell FocusWhile casting a spell, you prepare a material spell component or a spell focus. If this component or spell focus is particularly large or unwieldy, your GM might rule that this instead takes a simple action, or even an advanced action.
SpeakYou speak for no more than a few words using one or more free actions. Unlike other free actions, this action can be taken even when it’s not your turn.
Use a Free-Action AbilityYou use an ability that can be used as a free action in the default action economy. If the ability must be used as part of another action, you must take that action before taking this free action.
ReactionsThe following are the main reactions. Some reactions may provoke depending on their subtype, in which case an opponent can perform a reaction before your reaction. This can lead to a chain of reaction between opposing combatants until no more reactions provoke or combatants have exhaused their available reactions.
Attack of OpportunityWhen a foe you threaten provokes an attack of opportunity, you can make a single melee attack against that foe. You can also spend your attack of opportunity to perform some other action if you possess an ability that allows you to do so, in which case the reaction's subtype may vary on the description of the ability.
Complete a Readied Action (Varies)When you have readied an action or advanced action, and the trigger you designate occurs, you can take that action. Your place in the initiative order does not change. This reaction’s subtype is the same as the readied action’s subtype.
CounterYou perform a Counter maneuver that you have readied.
Counterspell (Provoke)Counterspelling an opponent's spell requires a reaction.
Use an Immediate-Action Ability (Varies)You can use an ability that can be used as an immediate action in the default action economy, as long as any conditions to use that ability are met. This reaction's subtype varies on the description of the ability.
Injury and Death
Disabled (0 to Negative Constitution Score Hit Points)You gain the disabled condition when your hit point total drops to 0 and lower down to the negative equivalent of your Constitution score. While you have the disabled condition, you have one less act available on your turn. You can still use reactions, and are still considered to be threatening for situations such as flanking. However, each act and reaction (or any other action the GM deems strenuous, including some free actions such as casting a Quicken Spell spell) used while disabled inflicts 1 point of damage to you. You also move at half speed. When your hit point total reaches your negative Constitution score, you fall unconscious and are dying. Healing that raises your hit points above 0 makes you fully functional again, just as if you'd never been reduced to 0 or fewer hit points. You can also become disabled when recovering from dying. In this case, it's a step toward recovery, and you can have fewer than 0 hit points (see Stable Characters and Recovery).
Dying (Negative Constitution Score to Double Negative Constitution Score)If your hit point total is negative and equal or lower to your Constitution score, but not equal to or greater than twice your Constitution score, you are dying. A dying character immediately falls unconscious and can take no actions. A dying character loses 1 hit point every round. This continues until the character dies or becomes stable.
DeadWhen your character's current hit points drop to a negative amount equal to twice his Constitution score or lower, or if he succumbs to massive damage, he's dead. A character can also die from taking ability damage or suffering an ability drain that reduces his Constitution score to 0 (see Special Abilities). Certain types of powerful magic, such as raise dead and resurrection, can restore life to a dead character.
Stable Characters and RecoveryOn the character's next turn, after reaching dying status (but not dead), and on all subsequent turns, the character must make a DC 0 Fortitude save to become stable. The character must be unconscious or spend a full-round action to do nothing in order to make this saving throw. The character takes a penalty on this roll equal to half of his negative hit point total. A character that is already stable does not need to make this check. A natural 20 on this check is an automatic success. If the character fails this check, he loses 1 hit point. An unconscious or dying character cannot use any special action that changes the initiative count on which his action occurs. Characters taking continuous damage, such as from an acid arrow or a bleed effect, automatically fail all Fortitude saves made to stabilize. Such characters lose 1 hit point per round in addition to the continuous damage. If a stable dying character takes damage, they are no longer stable and must again make Fortitude saves on their turn to stabilize. You can keep a dying character from losing any more hit points and make him stable with a DC 10 Heal check with a penalty equal to the dying character's current negative hit points. If any sort of healing cures the dying character of even 1 point of damage, he becomes stable and stops losing hit points. Healing that raises the dying character's hit points **from above his negative Constitution score to 0 makes him conscious and disabled. Healing that raises his hit points to 1 or more makes him fully functional again, just as if he'd never been reduced to 0 or lower. A spellcaster retains the spellcasting capability she had before dropping below 0 hit points. A stable character who has been tended by a healer or who has been magically healed eventually regains consciousness and recovers hit points naturally. If the character has no one to tend him, however, his life is still in danger, and he may yet slip away.
If you sustain an amount of damage that would reduce your hit points to 0 or lower, you may choose to instead receive a crippling injury to negate some or all of the damage. You can only take one crippling injury per attack. You may choose which injury you receive; if the damage received exceeds the amount negated by the injury, the excess damage applies to your hit points as normal. Table: Crippling Injuries describes each crippling injury and the amount of damage negated. You can receive a number of injuries up to your Constitution score. After that, you can no longer take injuries instead of damage.
Crippling injuries are permanent and cumulative, and cannot be healed by magical effects that cure hit point damage. The restoration spell can heal one crippling injury, removing both positive and negative effects, unless the body part has been severed. A severed body part requires the regenerate spell to be healed. A creature with the regeneration ability has all crippling injuries removed when healed back to full hit points.
Creatures immune to critical hits cannot choose to take a crippling injury.
If you ever sustain a single attack that deals an amount of damage equal to half your total hit points (minimum 50 points of damage) or more and it doesn't kill you outright, you must make a Fortitude save with a DC of 15 + half of the damage amount that exceeds 50. If this saving throw fails, you die regardless of your current hit points. If you take half your total hit points or more in damage from multiple attacks, no one of which dealt more than half your total hit points (minimum 50), the massive damage rule does not apply. If you survive taking massive damage, you gain a crippling injury. Crippling injuries are determined randomly by rolling a 1d20 on Table: Crippling Injuries. For every 5 points of damage received, add 1 to the roll.
Creatures immune to critical hits are not subject to massive damage.
Table: Crippling Injuries
|1—4||5||Scar: -1 penalty on all Bluff, Diplomacy, Disguise, and Perform checks; +1 bonus to Intimidate checks.|
|5—8||10||Major Scar: disadvantage penalty on all Bluff, Diplomacy, Disguise, and Perform checks; +1 bonus to Intimidate checks.|
|9—10||15||Finger Injury: -1 penalty to all Climb, Craft, Disable Device, Perform (keyboard, percussion, string, wind), Ride, and Sleight of Hand checks. If you lose the use of all fingers on one hand, you lose the use of that hand as if you had received a hand injury. If you lose use of all fingers, another finger injury results in a finger being completely severed. Reroll if all fingers have been severed.|
|11—12||20||Eye Injury: disadvantage on all sight-based Perception checks; blind if all eyes are injured. If you lose the use of all of your eyes, another eye injury results in one eye being destroyed. Reroll if all of your eyes have been destroyed.|
|13—14||25||Hand Injury: disadvantage penalty on all Climb, Craft, Disable Device, Perform (keyboard, percussion, string, wind), Ride, Sleight of Hand, and Swim checks; cannot hold items in that hand; cannot hold items in that hand; cannot use two-handed items if only one intact hand remaining. If you lose the use of all of your hands, you cannot cast spells with somatic components (unless you use the Still Spell feat). In addition, another hand injury results in that hand being severed, and you gain 1 bleed damage. Reroll if all of your hands have been severed.|
|15—16||30||Head Injury: disadvantage to all Intelligence-, Wisdom-, and Charisma-based checks and skill checks, and to Will saving throws. If you have at least 2 head injuries, you become permanently sickened. If you have at least 3 head injuries, you become permanently confused. If you have at least 4 head injuries, you become permanently staggered. If you have at least 5 head injuries, you have a 50% chance of being dazed at the beginning of your turn for 1 round. Reroll if you already have five head injuries.|
|17—18||35||Foot/Leg Injury: disadvantage on all Acrobatics, Climb, Perform (dance), Ride, and Stealth checks; speed reduced to half if you lose the use of half of your legs/feet; cannot charge or run. If you lose the use of all your feet/legs, you fall prone and can only move with the Crawl action. In addition, another foot/leg injury results in that limb being severed, and you gain 2 bleed damage. Reroll if all of your feet or legs have been severed.|
|19—20||40||Arm Injury: disadvantage on all Acrobatics, Climb, Craft, Disable Device, Perform (keyboard, percussion, string, wind), Ride, Sleight of Hand, and Swim checks; cannot use any items with that arm; cannot use two-handed items if only one intact arm and intact hand remaining; melee attacks against you gain advantage. If you lose the use of all of your arms, another arm injury results in an arm being severed, and you gain 2 bleed damage. Reroll if all of your arms have been severed.|
Nonlethal and Burn DamageNonlethal damage represents harm to a character that is not life-threatening. Unlike normal damage, nonlethal damage is healed quickly with rest.
Dealing Nonlethal DamageCertain attacks deal nonlethal damage. Other effects, such as heat or being exhausted, also deal nonlethal damage. When you take nonlethal damage, keep a running total of how much you’ve accumulated. Do not deduct the nonlethal damage number from your current hit points. It is not “real” damage. Instead, when your nonlethal damage equals or exceeds half of your current hit points, you’re staggered (see below), and when it exceeds your current hit points, you fall unconscious. Nonlethal Damage with a Weapon that Deals Lethal Damage
You can use a melee weapon that deals lethal damage to deal nonlethal damage instead, but you incur disadvantage on your attack roll. Lethal Damage with a Weapon that Deals Nonlethal Damage
You can use a weapon that deals nonlethal damage, including an unarmed strike, to deal lethal damage instead, but you incur disadvantage on your attack roll.
Staggered and UnconsciousWhen your nonlethal damage equals or exceeds half of your current hit points, you’re staggered. You can only take a single simple action (in addition to free actions and reactions). You cease being staggered when half of your current hit points once again exceed your nonlethal damage. When your nonlethal damage exceeds your current hit points, you fall unconscious. While unconscious, you are helpless. Spellcasters who fall unconscious retain any spellcasting ability they had before going unconscious. If a creature’s nonlethal damage is equal to his total maximum hit points (not his current hit points), all further nonlethal damage is treated as lethal damage. This does not apply to creatures with regeneration. Such creatures simply accrue additional nonlethal damage, increasing the amount of time they remain unconscious.
Healing Nonlethal DamageYou heal nonlethal damage at the rate of 1 hit point per hour per character level. When a spell or ability cures hit point damage, it also removes an equal amount of nonlethal damage.
Burn DamageBurn damage behaves the same way as nonlethal damage, except that even creatures that are immune to nonlethal damage are affected by burn damage. You suffer burn damage when you overexert to channel more power beyond the limit of what your mind and body can safely endure. Burn damage stacks with nonlethal damage to determine when you are staggered and unconscious. Burn damage cannot be healed by any means other than getting a full night’s rest, at a rate of 1 hit point per hour per character level. When healing from a full night's rest, nonlethal damage is healed first before the burn damage is healed.
CleaveIf your Strength is 13 or higher and you have a base attack bonus of +1 or higher, when you hit a foe with a melee attack, you can choose to make another melee attack as a free action against a foe that is adjacent to the first and also within reach, in exchange for letting all opponents gain advantage on attack rolls against you until the start of your next turn. You can only make this one cleave attack per round. If your base attack is +6 or better, you can continue to make attacks against foes adjacent to the previous foe as free actions, so long as they are within your reach. You cannot attack an individual foe more than once during this attack action.
Combat ExpertiseIf your Intelligence is 13 or higher, you can choose to take a -1 penalty on melee attack rolls to gain a +3 dodge bonus to your DV. The penalty and bonus last until the beginning of your next turn. When your base attack bonus reaches +4, and every +4 thereafter, the penalty increases by -1 and the dodge bonus increases by +3. You can only choose to use this attack option upon the first time you declare that you are making an attack with a melee weapon during your turn.
Deadly AimIf your Dexterity is 13 or higher, and your base attack bonus is +1 or higher, you can choose to take a –1 penalty on a ranged attack roll to gain a +2 bonus on its damage roll. When your base attack bonus reaches +4, and every +4 thereafter, the penalty increases by –1 and the bonus to damage increases by +2. The bonus damage does not apply to touch attacks or effects that do not deal hit point damage.
LungeIf your base attack bonus +6 or higher, you can increase the reach of your melee attacks by 5 feet until the end of your turn by taking a –2 penalty to your DV until the beginning of your next turn. You must decide to use this ability before any attacks are made.
Martial PowerIf your Constitution is 13 of higher, and you have knowledge of at least one maneuver or stance, you can choose to take a -1 penalty on attack rolls to gain 2 temporary hit points. This bonus is increased by half (50%) when you are using a shield of any kind. When your base attack bonus reaches +3 and every +2 thereafter, the penalty increases by -1 and the temporary hit point bonus increases by 2. You can only choose to use this attack option upon the first time you declare that you are making a melee attack or initiating a maneuver. The penalty to attack rolls and temporary hit points gained from use of this choice last until the start of your next turn.
Power AttackIf your Strength is 13 or higher, and your base attack bonus is +1 or higher, you can choose to take a –1 penalty on a melee attack roll to gain a +2 bonus on its damage roll. This bonus to damage is increased by half (+50%) if you are making an attack with a two-handed weapon, a one handed weapon using two hands, or a primary natural weapon that adds 1-1/2 times your Strength modifier on damage rolls. This bonus to damage is halved (–50%) if you are making an attack with an off-hand weapon or secondary natural weapon. When your base attack bonus reaches +4, and every 4 points thereafter, the penalty increases by –1 and the bonus to damage increases by +2. You must choose to use this attack option before making an attack roll, and its effects last until your next turn. The bonus damage does not apply to touch attacks or effects that do not deal hit point damage. This attack option cannot be used in conjunction with the Precision Strike special attack option.
Precision StrikeIf your Dexterity is 13 or higher and your base attack bonus is +1 or higher, you can choose to take a -1 penalty on a melee attack roll to gain a +2 bonus on its damage roll. This bonus to damage is halved (-50%) if you are making an attack with an off-hand weapon or secondary natural weapon. When your base attack bonus reaches +4, and for every 4 points thereafter, the penalty increases by -1 and the bonus on damage rolls increases by +2. You must choose to use this attack option before the attack roll, and its effects last until your next turn. The bonus damage does not apply to touch attacks or effects that do not deal hit point damage. This attack option cannot be used in conjunction with the Power Attack special attack option.
Reckless AimYour lack of regard for others proves a boon when you fire projectiles into melee. When you shoot or throw ranged weapons at an opponent, you can choose to take a –1 penalty to your DV until the beginning of your next turn and gain a +2 bonus on your attack roll. When your base attack bonus reaches +4, and every 4 points thereafter, the penalty increases by -1 and the bonus to attack rolls increases by +2. However, when you roll a natural 1 on a ranged attack roll made with this bonus, you automatically hit a random adjacent creature that threatens your intended target if one is present.
Reckless OffenseYou can shift your focus from defense to offense. If your base attack bonus is +1 or higher, you can take a -1 penalty to your DV until the beginning of your next turn and add a +2 bonus on your melee attack roll. When your base attack bonus reaches +4, and every 4 points thereafter, the penalty increases by –1 and the bonus to attack rolls increases by +2. However, when you roll a natural 1 on a melee attack roll made with this bonus, you automatically hit a random adjacent creature that threatens your intended target if present.
Weakened AttackYou may choose to deal less damage in your melee or ranged attack, such as holding back your swing purposefully aiming to graze, by choosing to reduce some or all of the bonus damage derived from ability scores, to a mininmum of 0. If your attack roll is high enough to gain degrees of success, you may choose to not roll additional damage for some or all of the degrees. Furthermore, you can try to be more precise in how you attack by taking -1 penalty to your attack roll a number of times of your choice, reducing the amount of damage from your attack by 2 each time.
Combat ManeuversEach character and creature has a Combat Maneuver Bonus (or CMB) that represents its skill at performing combat maneuvers. A creature's CMB is determined using the following formula:
CMB = Base attack bonus + Strength modifier + Dexterity modifier + special size modifier
You can give your opponent the pinned condition (see Conditions). Despite pinning your opponent, you still only have the grappled condition, but you are denied your Dexterity bonus to DV. While attempting to pin your opponent or when maintaining the pin, you may choose to apply a chokehold to him. To do so, you must make another grapple combat maneuver without the +5 circumstance bonus. If you succeed, you have pinned your opponent and hold the opponent in a chokehold. When you maintain the grapple, you also maintain the chokehold. A creature in a chokehold cannot breathe or speak, and thus cannot cast spells that have a verbal component. An opponent you have in a chokehold has to hold his breath or begin suffocating (see Suffocation under Environmental Rules). Any creature that does not breathe, is immune to bleed damage, or is immune to critical hits is immune to the effects of your chokehold. When the grapple is ended, so is the chokehold. If you have the Greater Grapple feat, you can apply a chokehold to cut off the blood flow instead of the airways, rendering holding his breath useless.