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The Language of Shëǀoɗ̺ʰian |Natively known as: Shëǀoɗ̺ʰ /ˈçɘǀɔɗ̺ʰ/|

Natively known as: Shëǀoɗ̺ʰ /ˈçɘǀɔɗ̺ʰ/

  ...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind... shiɗ̺ʰ ɗ̺ʰãk iger nërò khʌ̤̈ ǂorü shiɗ̺ʰ ɥãg khʌ̤̈ ǂeg shiküg nö keɥëɗ̺ʰ Pronunciation: /çɪɗ̺ʰ ɗ̺ʰãk ˈɪɠɛɻ ˈnɘɻɞ xʌ̤̈ ˈǂɔɻɯ çɪɗ̺ʰ ɥãɠ xʌ̤̈ ǂɛɠ çɪˈkɯɠ nɒ ˈkɛɥɘɗ̺ʰ/ Shëǀoɗ̺ʰian word order: and he stood holding hat his and turned his face wet to the wind  

Spelling & Phonology

  Consonant inventory: /k n nʲ q x ç ǀ ǂ ɗ̺ʰ ɠ ɥ ɻ ʨ/
↓Manner/Place→ Dental Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-palatal Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal n nʲ
Stop k q
Implosive ɠ
Affricate ʨ
Fricative ç x
Approximant ɻ
Click ǀ ǂ
  Co-articulated phonemes
↓Manner/Place→ Labial-palatal
Approximant ɥ
  Vowel inventory: /a ã ɒ ɔ ɘ ɛ ɞ ɪ ɯ ʊ ʌ̤̈/
Front Central Back
High ɯ
Near-high ɪ ʊ
High-mid ɘ
Low-mid ɛ ɞ ʌ̤̈ ɔ
Low a ã ɒ
  Syllable structure: (C)V(C) Stress pattern: No fixed stress Word initial consonants: k, n, q, x, ç, ǀ, ǂ, ɗ̺ʰ, ɠ, ɥ, ɻ, ʨ Mid-word consonants: k, kk, kç, n, nʨ, nʲ, q, x, xn, xnʲ, ç, çk, ǀ, ǂ, ɗ̺ʰ, ɠ, ɥ, ɻ, ɻk, ɻn, ʨ, ʨk, ʨn, ʨnʲ Word final consonants: k, nʲ, q, x, ǀ, ǂ, ɗ̺ʰ, ɠ, ɥ, ɻ, ʨ   Phonological changes (in order of application):  
  • ɔk → ɤɣ / _#
  • k → Ø / _#
  • k → ʧ / _E
  • n → ŋ / _#
  • a → aː / VC_
  How to read phonological rules   Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
ʲ
ɔ o
ɛ e
ɪ i
ʊ u
ɒ
ɞ
ɘ
ɯ
ç sh
ɠ g
ɻ r
ʨ ch
x kh
 

Grammar

  Main word order: Subject Verb Object (Prepositional phrase). "Mary opened the door with a key" turns into Mary opened the door with a key. Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned after the noun. Adposition: prepositions  

Nouns

Singular No affix ër /ɘɻ/ doɡ
Plural If starts with vowel: Prefix ɠ- Else: Prefix ɠɒ- gër /ɠɘɻ/ doɡs
 

Articles

Definite Indefinite
Singular ǂër /ǂɘɻ/ the rë /ɻɘ/ a
Plural qa /qa/ the /ɒ/ some
 

Pronouns

1st singular gëɥ /ɠɘɥ/ I, me, mine
2nd singular keg /kɛɠ/ you, yours
3rd singular ɗ̺ʰãk /ɗ̺ʰãk/ he, she, him, her, his, hers, it, its
1st plural ɥʌ̤̈ /ɥʌ̤̈/ we, us, ours
2nd plural ɥö /ɥɒ/ you all, yours (pl)
3rd plural ǂon /ǂɔnʲ/ they, them, theirs
 

Possessive determiners

1st singular ǀö /ǀɒ/ my
2nd singular /ɔǀ/ your
3rd singular khʌ̤̈ /xʌ̤̈/ his, her, its
1st plural gö /ɠɒ/ our
2nd plural shikh /çɪx/ your (pl)
3rd plural rò /ɻɞ/ their
 

Verbs

  Shëǀoɗ̺ʰian uses a standalone particle word for past tense:
Past Particle before the verb: nɘ - në aq /nɘ aq/ learned
  Shëǀoɗ̺ʰian uses a standalone particle word for future tense:
Future Particle before the verb: nɒ - nö aq /nɒ aq/ will learn
 

Imperfective aspect

  The ‘imperfective’ aspect refers to ongoing actions, such as I am learning and habitual actions, such as I learn (something new every day).   Shëǀoɗ̺ʰian uses a standalone particle word for imperfective:
Imperfective Particle before the verb: nɞʨ - nòch aq /nɞʨ aq/ learns/is learninɡ
 

Numbers

  Shëǀoɗ̺ʰian has a base-10 number system:   1 - ǂò 2 - shö 3 - chekh 4 - ɥig 5 - khöɗ̺ʰ 6 - ǂür 7 - nò 8 - neɥ 9 - qö 10 - gò 11 - gò shiɗ̺ʰ ǂò “ten and one” 100 - ǂò ǂach “one hundred” 101 - ǂò ǂach ǂò “one hundred one” 200 - shö ǂach 1000 - ǂò ǀü “one thousand”  

Derivational morphology

  Adjective → adverb = If starts with vowel: Prefix q- Else: Prefix qɯ- Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix n- Else: Prefix nɘ- Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Prefix ɪ- Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Prefix nɞ- Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If starts with vowel: Prefix ɗ̺ʰ- Else: Prefix ɗ̺ʰʌ̤̈- Noun to verb = Prefix ɛ- Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Prefix ɥʌ̤̈- Tending to = If starts with vowel: Prefix ǀ- Else: Prefix ǀa- Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix ɻ- Else: Prefix ɻɛ- Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = If starts with vowel: Prefix ɥ- Else: Prefix ɥɒ- One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Prefix ɒ- Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = If starts with vowel: Prefix ɻ- Else: Prefix ɻɛ- Diminutive = Prefix ɒ- Augmentative = If starts with vowel: Prefix ɗ̺ʰ- Else: Prefix ɗ̺ʰʌ̤̈-

Alphabet

ç ǀ ɠ ɥ ǂ q n ɻ k ʨ x ɗ̺ʰ nʲ ɒ ɪ ɘ ɞ ɛ ɔ ʊ ɯ a ʌ̤̈ ã

Geographical Distribution

it is spoken by the the East tribes

Vocabulary

a /a/ n. year, period ãchnü /ãʨˈnɯ/ n. pump ãk /ãk/ n. triangle ãköɗ̺ʰ /ˈãkɒɗ̺ʰ/ n. goal, destination ãnʌ̤̈ɥë /ãˈnʌ̤̈ɥɘ/ conj. either ãrü /ˈãɻɯ/ n. bucket ãɥi /ˈãɥɪ/ n. campaign ãǂëch /ãˈǂɘʨ/ v. sink cheg /ʨɛɠ/ adv. yesterday cher /ʨɛɻ/ n. chicken, fowl chòɗ̺ʰ /ʨɞɗ̺ʰ/ n. education chokkòr /ˈʨɔkkɞɻ/ n. crown chòq /ʨɞq/ v. define choɥoǂ /ˈʨɔɥɔǂ/ n. picture chü /ʨɯ/ n. anxiety chur /ʨʊɻ/ v. catch, capture, seize chuǀ /ʨʊǀ/ n. material ɗ̺ʰãchku /ˈɗ̺ʰãʨkʊ/ v. shop ɗ̺ʰakh /ɗ̺ʰax/ n. quarter ɗ̺ʰãre /ˈɗ̺ʰãɻɛ/ adj. medical ɗ̺ʰü /ɗ̺ʰɯ/ v. know (a fact), know (be acquainted with) ɗ̺ʰün /ɗ̺ʰɯnʲ/ n. north ɗ̺ʰüsho /ˈɗ̺ʰɯçɔ/ n. credit (of money) ɗ̺ʰʌ̤̈gik /ˈɗ̺ʰʌ̤̈ɠɪk/ adj. personal ɗ̺ʰʌ̤̈shërkòr /ɗ̺ʰʌ̤̈ˈçɘɻkɞɻ/ adj. economic e /ɛ/ prep. like ëch /ɘʨ/ adj. social ëɗ̺ʰ /ɘɗ̺ʰ/ n. top, mountain ek /ɛk/ n. basket ëkhnëg /ˈɘxnɘɠ/ n. democracy ën /ɘnʲ/ n. officer, official ëq /ɘq/ n. gender ër /ɘɻ/ n. dog ër niɥe /ɘɻ ˈnɪɥɛ/ n. shark ëshò /ɘˈçɞ/ num. second ëǀ /ɘǀ/ adj. great ëǂiq /ˈɘǂɪq/ v. lean, tilt, bow (greet) gëgò /ˈɠɘɠɞ/ v. regret gën /ɠɘnʲ/ v. claim, allege gërnëg /ˈɠɘɻnɘɠ/ v. mix, blend, merge gëɥö /ɠɘˈɥɒ/ n. project, enterprise giɗ̺ʰ /ɠɪɗ̺ʰ/ v. compare gikek /ɠɪˈkɛk/ v. smash, shatter gin /ɠɪnʲ/ v. sew gir /ɠɪɻ/ det. such gishʌ̤̈che /ɠɪˈçʌ̤̈ʨɛ/ n. system gò /ɠɞ/ num. ten gökh /ɠɒx/ n. chin göǀ /ɠɒǀ/ v. cover, protect ichkò /ɪʨˈkɞ/ adj. live iger /ˈɪɠɛɻ/ v. stand ikikh /ˈɪkɪx/ n. equipment iqe /ˈɪqɛ/ n. lower class irʌ̤̈ɥi /ɪˈɻʌ̤̈ɥɪ/ n. nostril iǀikh /ˈɪǀɪx/ n. politics kei /ˈkɛɪ/ n. support keq /kɛq/ v. buy, purchase keshöǀ /kɛˈçɒǀ/ v. fire kha /xa/ adj. fat, big khã /xã/ n. force khak /xak/ v. involve, entail khão /xãˈɔ/ n. tide khãr /xãɻ/ adv. forever khãɥöǀ /xãˈɥɒǀ/ n. bit khög /xɒɠ/ v. balance khü /xɯ/ n. story, fable, plot, literature khüg /xɯɠ/ det. each khükhi /xɯˈxɪ/ v. tread, step on khükshöǀ /ˈxɯkçɒǀ/ v. travel khüo /xɯˈɔ/ n. coffee khuɥ /xʊɥ/ adj. favorite khüǀòn /ˈxɯǀɞnʲ/ n. grandfather khʌ̤̈q /xʌ̤̈q/ v. forget kochko /ˈkɔʨkɔ/ n. impulse kokkò /ˈkɔkkɞ/ v. masturbate kor /kɔɻ/ n. team koɥò /kɔˈɥɞ/ n. pair, duo kü /kɯ/ v. like, admire kükho /kɯˈxɔ/ v. bite kur /kʊɻ/ pron. nothing küǂe /ˈkɯǂɛ/ n. camera nëchkò /ˈnɘʨkɞ/ n. hill nëg /nɘɠ/ prep. for (the purpose of) nëkhi /nɘˈxɪ/ adj. internal nëkökh /ˈnɘkɒx/ n. child, kid nënëkhi /nɘnɘˈxɪ/ n. interior nëqö /nɘˈqɒ/ adj. cold nëshëküg /nɘçɘˈkɯɠ/ n. sadness, sorrow nëshke /nɘçˈkɛ/ n. cat neɥë niɥ /ˈnɛɥɘ nɪɥ/ n. vocabulary ni ãch /nɪ ãʨ/ n. soldier nikh /nɪx/ n. cage ninu /nɪˈnʊ/ n. clay nishkò /ˈnɪçkɞ/ v. direct, conduct nò /nɞ/ num. seven nòchechnö /nɞˈʨɛʨnɒ/ adj. powerful noɗ̺ʰe /nɔˈɗ̺ʰɛ/ n. security nògëqi khaɗ̺ʰ /nɞˈɠɘqɪ xaɗ̺ʰ/ n. homosexual non /nɔnʲ/ v. sit nònug /ˈnɞnʊɠ/ adj. reasonable nör /nɒɻ/ v. write noshkʌ̤̈ɗ̺ʰe /nɔçˈkʌ̤̈ɗ̺ʰɛ/ n. vagina nòɥʌ̤̈q /ˈnɞɥʌ̤̈q/ adj. beautiful noǂuǂ /nɔˈǂʊǂ/ adj. gay, homosexual nug /nʊɠ/ n. reason, logic nur /nʊɻ/ n. look, appearance ò /ɞ/ adj. sick, ill, unwell òch /ɞʨ/ adv. least öchòn /ˈɒʨɞnʲ/ n. runner öɗ̺ʰaɥ /ɒˈɗ̺ʰaɥ/ n. lover ok /ɔk/ n. art ökhãshu /ɒˈxãçʊ/ n. lawyer okku /ˈɔkkʊ/ v. swim ön /ɒnʲ/ n. beak önik /ˈɒnɪk/ n. stamp òq /ɞq/ v. see, perceive òqʌ̤̈ɗ̺ʰò /ɞqʌ̤̈ˈɗ̺ʰɞ/ n. row öüɗ̺ʰʌ̤̈ni /ɒˌɯɗ̺ʰʌ̤̈ˈnɪ/ n. liar oɥʌ̤̈rke /ɔɥʌ̤̈ɻˈkɛ/ n. expression òǂ /ɞǂ/ prep. over qa /qa/ det. the qag /qaɠ/ n. mother qãkshoǂ /ˈqãkçɔǂ/ n. shape, form, pattern qãqe /ˈqãqɛ/ n. ship që /qɘ/ n. woman, wife qër /qɘɻ/ n. nerve qichno /ˈqɪʨnɔ/ n. axe qikãrã niɥ /qɪkãˈɻã nɪɥ/ n. dictionary qiq /qɪq/ n. guy qiɥo /ˈqɪɥɔ/ conj. whether qoɗ̺ʰarò /qɔɗ̺ʰaˈɻɞ/ adv. recently qöǂ /qɒǂ/ det. those qügò /ˈqɯɠɞ/ n. patient qüküö /qɯkɯˈɒ/ adv. especially qüru /qɯˈɻʊ/ v. imagine, envision, assume qüǀur nikku /qɯˈǀʊɻ nɪkˈkʊ/ n. rainbow qʌ̤̈q /qʌ̤̈q/ n. century rë /ɻɘ/ det. a rechòr /ɻɛˈʨɞɻ/ n. painting rëgöch /ɻɘˈɠɒʨ/ adj. guilty rekhãshko /ɻɛˈxãçkɔ/ n. failure rekiɥ /ˈɻɛkɪɥ/ n. candy rën /ɻɘnʲ/ adj. current renö /ɻɛˈnɒ/ adj. furious req /ɻɛq/ n. saliva reqiɗ̺ʰ /ˈɻɛqɪɗ̺ʰ/ n. loss rërnin /ˈɻɘɻnɪnʲ/ v. cry, shout, scream, moan, sob, mourn reshëk /ˈɻɛçɘk/ n. description rëɥ /ɻɘɥ/ v. kick reɥʌ̤̈ /ˈɻɛɥʌ̤̈/ n. action reǂöch /ɻɛˈǂɒʨ/ n. slope, slant rò /ɻɞ/ n. hour, time roɗ̺ʰ /ɻɔɗ̺ʰ/ n. fund ròkhna gëqi /ˈɻɞxnʲa ˈɠɘqɪ/ n. pubic hair rone /ɻɔˈnɛ/ v. jerk ròr /ɻɞɻ/ n. tear roɥa /ˈɻɔɥa/ n. god ruk /ɻʊk/ v. excite shëchkò /ˈçɘʨkɞ/ n. parcel, package, bundle, packet shëkhni /ˈçɘxnʲɪ/ adj. only shënchi /çɘnˈʨɪ/ v. employ, enlist shërkòr /çɘɻˈkɞɻ/ n. economy shëɥò /ˈçɘɥɞ/ v. bake shiche /ˈçɪʨɛ/ n. month shikh /çɪx/ adj. popular shinë /çɪˈnɘ/ n. frame, hull shisha /çɪˈça/ n. skill, talent, craft shò /çɞ/ adv. there shòkaǂ /ˈçɞkaǂ/ v. treat shön /çɒnʲ/ v. chase u /ʊ/ prep. for (a period of time or length of distance) ügë /ɯˈɠɘ/ v. perform ükha /ˈɯxa/ v. regulate ünchu /ɯnˈʨʊ/ adj. pretty ür /ɯɻ/ n. cheese üɥanu /ɯˈɥanʲʊ/ v. train, coach üǂöǂ /ˈɯǂɒǂ/ n. bow (decorative material) ɥãɗ̺ʰ /ɥãɗ̺ʰ/ n. milk ɥãqa /ˈɥãqa/ n. guide ɥãǀ /ɥãǀ/ n. vehicle ɥichka /ˈɥɪʨka/ n. church, chapel, shrine ɥik /ɥɪk/ n. bread ɥiksho /ˈɥɪkçɔ/ n. stomach, gut, belly ɥiru /ɥɪˈɻʊ/ v. crawl ɥiǀ /ɥɪǀ/ v. report, disclose ɥöch /ɥɒʨ/ n. gap ɥöq /ɥɒq/ n. rock, stone, jewel, gem ɥöqö /ɥɒˈqɒ/ adj. big, large, huge ɥöɥ /ɥɒɥ/ adj. usual ɥʌ̤̈ch /ɥʌ̤̈ʨ/ n. seed, semen ɥʌ̤̈ǂòq /ˈɥʌ̤̈ǂɞq/ adj. broken ʌ̤̈ɥ /ʌ̤̈ɥ/ adj. left ǀachokhò /ǀaʨɔˈxɞ/ adj. shiny ǀãkhi /ˈǀãxɪ/ n. athlete ǀanüǀ /ˈǀanɯǀ/ adj. offensive ǀarëshig /ǀaɻɘˈçɪɠ/ adj. sticky ǀaǀ /ǀaǀ/ v. fuck ǀöch /ǀɒʨ/ v. lay ǀü /ǀɯ/ num. thousand ǀünʌ̤̈ò /ǀɯˈnʌ̤̈ɞ/ n. enemy ǀʌ̤̈n /ǀʌ̤̈nʲ/ v. carry, lift ǂag /ǂaɠ/ n. trunk (of tree) ǂech /ǂɛʨ/ n. rain ǂëɗ̺ʰö /ˈǂɘɗ̺ʰɒ/ n. cell ǂëkeɥ /ǂɘˈkɛɥ/ n. tower ǂëkshöqǂòq /ǂɘkˈçɒqǂɞq/ v. interrupt ǂeq /ǂɛq/ n. fan (enthusiast) ǂeǀöch /ˈǂɛǀɒʨ/ n. rice, cereal ǂòch /ǂɞʨ/ v. record ǂokhne /ǂɔxˈnʲɛ/ n. niece ǂon /ǂɔnʲ/ pron. they, them, theirs ǂorü kük /ǂɔˈɻɯ kɯk/ n. helmet ǂoǀòǀ /ˈǂɔǀɞǀ/ n. pocket ǂüchki /ˈǂɯʨkɪ/ n. erection ǂügö /ˈǂɯɠɒ/ v. execute ǂükhü /ˈǂɯxɯ/ n. bulb ǂüqi /ǂɯˈqɪ/ adj. exotic ǂüshʌ̤̈chnon /ǂɯˈçʌ̤̈ʨnʲɔnʲ/ v. push, shift

Common Phrases
admire the duo         kü ǂër koɥò                /kɯ ǂɘɻ kɔˈɥɞ/ (duo = Klæū and Ghăŭ)
Common Female Names
Chekhö         /ˈʨɛxɒ/ Gikhnëq        /ɠɪxˈnɘq/ ǂürò             /ˈǂɯɻɞ/
Common Male Names
ǂenë             /ǂɛˈnɘ/ Gire              /ɠɪˈɻɛ/ Nënu            /nɘˈnʊ/
Common Unisex Names
Chekhö           /ˈʨɛxɒ/ Gikhnëq          /ɠɪxˈnɘq/ ǂürò               /ˈǂɯɻɞ/ ǂenë              /ǂɛˈnɘ/ Gire               /ɠɪˈɻɛ/ Nënu             /nɘˈnʊ/

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