Yemsemhid

The main language of Bithynia. It's second behind Shutyilzh in frequency of use in the Asiatican Federation.  
...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind...
muk she no shonmew chad hip muk shihwuk kem no konghe duftu kep
Pronunciation: /muk ʃe no ˈʃonmew ʧaɾ hip muk ˈʃihwuk kem no ˈkoŋhe ˈɾuftu kep/
Yemsemhid word order: and he his hat holding stood and the wind to his wet face turned
 

Spelling & Phonology

Consonant inventory: f h j k m n p s t w ŋ ɾ ʃ ʧ
↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p t k
Affricate ʧ
Fricative f s ʃ h
Approximant j
Tap ɾ
Co-articulated phonemes
Vowel inventory: a e i o u
↓Manner/Place→ Labial-velar
Approximant w
Front Back
High i u
High-mid e o
Low a

Syllable structure: (C)V(C)

Stress pattern: Initial — stress is on the first syllable

Word initial consonants: f h j k m n p s t ɾ ʃ ʧ

Mid-word consonants: f fh fk ft fʃ h hk hm ht hw j jf jk jʃ k kj km kn ks kw kɾ kʧ m mh mk mm ms mt mɾ mʧ n nh nj nk nm nw nʃ nʧ p pj ps pt pw pɾ pʧ s sh sk sn ss st sw sɾ t tf tk tm tn ts tt tɾ w wɾ ŋ ŋh ŋj ŋn ŋp ɾ ɾj ɾm ɾp ɾs ɾt ɾw ɾʃ ʃ ʃj ʃm ʃs ʃt ʃʧ ʧ ʧf ʧm

Word final consonants: h k m n p s t w ŋ ɾ ʧ


Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
j [I]y
ŋ ng
ɾ d
ʃ sh
ʧ ch
 

Grammar

Main word order: Subject (Prepositional phrase) Object Verb. “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Mary with a key the door opened.

Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.

Adposition: postpositions

 

Nouns

Nouns have five cases:
  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
  • Dative is the recipient of something: man gives ball to dog.
  • Locative is the location of something: man goes to town.
Nominative

No affix

mung /muŋ/

dog (doing the verb)

Accusative

If starts with vowel: Prefix k-

Else: Prefix ka-

kamung /ˈkamuŋ/

(verb done to) dog

Genitive

If starts with vowel: Prefix j-

Else: Prefix ja-

yamung /ˈjamuŋ/

dogʼs

Dative

Prefix pa-

pamung /ˈpamuŋ/

to (the/a) dog

Locative

If starts with vowel: Prefix h-

Else: Prefix ha-

hamung /ˈhamuŋ/

near/at/by (the/a) dog

Singular

If starts with vowel: Prefix s-

Else: Prefix so-

somung /ˈsomuŋ/

dog

Plural

No affix

mung /muŋ/

dogs

 

Articles

Definite

da /ɾa/

the

Indefinite

as /as/

a, some

  Uses of definite article that differ from English:
  • Definite article can be omitted: ‘I am going to supermarket’
  • Not used for mass (uncountable) nouns: ‘Walking in the mud’ would always translate to ‘Walking in mud’.
  • Used for personal names in third person: ‘The Maria has left for school’
  Uses of indefinite article that differ from English:
  • Not used for non-specific countable nouns: non-specific means ‘I am looking for a (any) girl in a red dress’, whereas specific means ‘I am looking for a (particular) girl in a red dress’
  • Not used for non-specific mass (uncountable) nouns: non-specific means ‘Would you like some (any) tea?’ whereas specific means ‘Some tea (a specific amount) fell off the truck’
 

Pronouns

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Locative
1st singular

me /me/

I

shem /ʃem/

me

hut /hut/

mine

fok /fok/

to me

do /ɾo/

at me

2nd singular

te /te/

you

da /ɾa/

you

yi /ji/

yours

ne /ne/

to you

shi /ʃi/

at you

3rd singular masc

she /ʃe/

he, it

uch /uʧ/

him, it

shot /ʃot/

his, its

fong /foŋ/

to him, at it

muk /muk/

at him, at it

3rd singular fem

dip /ɾip/

she, it

i /i/

her, it

seh /seh/

hers, its

yam /jam/

to her, at it

fa /fa/

at her, at it

1st plural

ken /ken/

we

pu /pu/

us

po /po/

ours

ta /ta/

to us

su /su/

at us

2nd plural

hu /hu/

you all

at /at/

you all

sha /ʃa/

yours (pl)

ma /ma/

to you all

mu /mu/

at you all

3rd plural

moh /moh/

they

yu /ju/

them

mung /muŋ/

theirs

de /ɾe/

to them

tap /tap/

at them

 

Possessive Determiners

1st singular

huh /huh/

my

2nd singular

da /ɾa/

your

3rd singular masc

no /no/

his

3rd singular fem

fe /fe/

her

1st plural

shu /ʃu/

our

2nd plural

ye /je/

your (pl)

3rd plural

nem /nem/

their

 

Verbs

Present

No affix

mini /ˈmini/

learn

Past

If starts with vowel: Prefix f-

Else: Prefix fi-

fimini /ˈfimini/

learned

Remote past

If starts with vowel: Prefix ʧ-

Else: Prefix ʧi-

chimini /ˈʧimini/

learned (long ago)

Yemsemhid uses a standalone particle word for future tense:

Future

Particle before the verb: sa -

sa mini /sa ˈmini/

will learn

 

Progressive aspect

  The ‘progressive’ aspect refers to actions that are happening at the time of speaking, such as I am learning.   Yemsemhid uses an affix for progressive:
Progressive

If starts with vowel: Prefix j-

Else: Prefix je-

yemini /ˈjemini/

is learning

 

Habitual aspect

  The ‘habitual’ aspect refers to actions that happen habitually, such as I learn (something new every day), as opposed to actions that happen once (I learned something).   Yemsemhid uses a standalone particle word for habitual:
Habitual

Particle before the verb: ne -

ne mini /ne ˈmini/

learns

 

Numbers

Yemsemhid has a base-10 number system:

1 - fa

2 - di

3 - ha

4 - peski

5 - sew

6 - hus

7 - yet

8 - chu

9 - kudmut

10 - shek

11 - fa muk shek “one and ten”

100 - mum “hundred”

101 - mum muk fa “hundred and one”

200 - di mum

1000 - hik “thousand”

 

Derivational morphology

Adjective → adverb = If ends with vowel: Suffix -m

Else: Suffix -um

Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -n

Else: Suffix -an

Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Prefix a-

Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Prefix e-

Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -t

Else: Suffix -it

Noun to verb = If ends with vowel: Suffix -h

Else: Suffix -ih

Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Suffix -uh

Tending to = If ends with vowel: Suffix -p

Else: Suffix -ap

Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Prefix pa-

Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -w

Else: Suffix -uw

One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Suffix -e

Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ɾ

Else: Suffix -oɾ

Diminutive = If ends with vowel: Suffix -t

Else: Suffix -at

Augmentative = Suffix -uɾ

Dictionary

4561 Words.
Spoken by

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