Renani

The language brought with the Renanim when they arrived into the Imperia, Renani has evolved to incorporate loan words from other languages, especially that of Judaea. During the early Ages of the Imperia, Renani was widespread and common enough to have several offical dialects, including Renyilzh (a combination of Renani and Shutyilzh) and Renasyian (a combination of Renani and Ajanasyian). Since the Seventeen-Hour War and the Renani Insurgency Control Order, the language has been banned in all but academic circles, and is now officially preserved as a dead language.   However, the Renanim scattered across the Imperia still speak Renani to varying degrees. At the very minimum, every Renan understands enough Renani to sing prayers.
...and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind...
ed bitz gekh mot ishom suhel ed gekh 'amni sev zef po giral
Pronunciation: /ed biʦ geχ mot iˈʃom suˈhel ed geχ ʔamˈni sev zef po giˈʁal/
Renani word order: and he his hat holding stood and his wet face the wind to turned

Spelling & Phonology

Consonant inventory: b d f g h j k l m n p s t v x z ʁ ʃ ʔ ʕ ʦ χ
↓Manner/Place→BilabialLabiodentalAlveolarPalato-alveolarPalatalVelarUvularPharyngealGlottal
Nasalmn
Stopp bt dk gʔ
Affricateʦ
Fricativef vs zʃxχ ʁʕh
Approximantj
Lateral approximantl
  Vowel inventory: a e i o u
FrontBack
Highiu
High-mideo
Lowa
 

Syllable structure: (C)V(C)

Stress pattern: Second — stress is on the second syllable


Spelling rules:
PronunciationSpelling
jy
χkh
ʦtz
ʁr
ʃsh
ʔ'

Grammar

Main word order: Subject Object (Prepositional phrase) Verb. “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Mary the door with a key opened.

Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.

Adposition: postpositions


Nouns

Nouns have two cases:
  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  Nouns form plural with separate plural word:
PluralParticle before the noun: o -
o zmod /o zmod/ dogs
 
NominativeNo affix
zmod /zmod/ dog (doing the verb)
AccusativePrefix bo-
bozmod /bozˈmod/ (verb done to) dog

Articles

Definite Indefinite
Singularek /ek/ the du' /duʔ/ a
Pluralra /ʁa/ the klu /klu/ some
Uses of definite article that differ from English:
  • Definite article can be omitted: ‘I am going to supermarket’
  • Used to talk about countable nouns in general: English’s ‘I like cats’ would translate to ‘I like the cats’
  • Not used for mass (uncountable) nouns: ‘Walking in the mud’ would always translate to ‘Walking in mud’.
  Uses of indefinite article that differ from English:
  • Not used for non-specific mass (uncountable) nouns: non-specific means ‘Would you like some (any) tea?’ whereas specific means ‘Some tea (a specific amount) fell off the truck’

Pronouns

Nominative Accusative
1st singular po /po/

I

lan /lan/

me

2nd singularhiv /hiv/

you

div /div/

you

3rd singularbitz /biʦ/

he, she, it

gim /gim/

his, her, it

1st pluralsa /sa/

we

suf /suf/

us

2nd pluraldov /dov/

you all

ha /ha/

you all

3rd pluralke /ke/

they

su /su/

them


Possessive determiners

Possessive
1st singularkin /kin/

my

2nd singularno /no/

your

3rd singulargekh /geχ/

his, her, its

1st pluralho /ho/

our

2nd pluralstu /stu/

your (pl)

3rd pluralzmut /zmut/

their

 

Verbs

PresentPastFuture
1st singularPrefix zmi-
zmikhir /zmiˈχiʁ/ (I) learn
Prefix u-
ukhir /uˈχiʁ/ (I) learned
Prefix a-
akhir /aˈχiʁ/ (I) will learn
2nd singularPrefix me-
mekhir /meˈχiʁ/ (you) learn
If starts with vowel: Prefix ʁ-
Else: Prefix ʁo-
rokhir /ʁoˈχiʁ/ (you) learned
If starts with vowel: Prefix us-
Else: Prefix use-
usekhir /uˈseχiʁ/ (you) will learn
3rd singularPrefix o-
okhir /oˈχiʁ/ (he/she/it) learns
Prefix dvi-
dvikhir /dviˈχiʁ/ (he/she/it) learned
Prefix i-
ikhir /iˈχiʁ/ (he/she/it) will learn
1st pluralPrefix ga-
gakhir /gaˈχiʁ/ (we) learn
Prefix ʃi-
shikhir /ʃiˈχiʁ/ (we) learned
If starts with vowel: Prefix kv-
Else: Prefix kve-
kvekhir /kveˈχiʁ/ (we) will learn
2nd pluralPrefix ba-
bakhir /baˈχiʁ/ (you all) learn
Prefix ʁo-
rokhir /ʁoˈχiʁ/ (you all) learned
Prefix ma-
makhir /maˈχiʁ/ (you all) will learn
3rd pluralPrefix po-
pokhir /poˈχiʁ/ (they) learn
Prefix li-
likhir /liˈχiʁ/ (they) learned
If starts with vowel: Prefix p-
Else: Prefix po-
pokhir /poˈχiʁ/ (they) will learn

Progressive aspect

The ‘progressive’ aspect refers to actions that are happening at the time of speaking, such as I am learning.
Renani uses an affix for progressive:  
ProgressiveIf starts with vowel: Prefix d-
Else: Prefix da-
dakhir /daˈχiʁ/ is learning

Habitual aspect

The ‘habitual’ aspect refers to actions that happen habitually, such as I learn (something new every day), as opposed to actions that happen once (I learned something).
Renani uses an affix for habitual:
HabitualIf starts with vowel: Prefix ʁ-
Else: Prefix ʁu-
rukhir /ʁuˈχiʁ/ learns

Perfect aspect

The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present.
Renani uses an affix for the perfect aspect:  
PerfectPrefix i-
ikhir /iˈχiʁ/ have learned

Numbers

Renani has a base-20 number system:
1 - sa
2 - ke
3 - dve
4 - ni
5 - ka
6 - a'ifi
7 - git
8 - lav
9 - kla
10 - tmi
11 - tmalu
12 - pa
13 - mush
14 - hirey
15 - kmam
16 - za
17 - yu
18 - do
19 - kad
20 - e
400 - kve
8000 - shifshu

Derivational morphology

Adjective → adverb = Suffix -i
Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -k
Else: Suffix -ik
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Prefix a-
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix h-
Else: Prefix ha-
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = Suffix -u
Noun to verb = Prefix ʁe-
Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Suffix -e
Tending to = If ends with vowel: Suffix -m
Else: Suffix -am
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix ʔ-
Else: Prefix ʔa-
Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʦ
Else: Suffix -eʦ
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Prefix e-
Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = If starts with vowel: Prefix uχn-
Else: Prefix uχne-
Diminutive = If ends with vowel: Suffix -f
Else: Suffix -of
Augmentative = If ends with vowel: Suffix -ʁ
Else: Suffix -iʁ

Dictionary

3056 Words.
WorldEmber 2022
Generic article | Dec 15, 2022

Common Vocabulary
Hello: kibuh
Goodbye: kibuh
Thank you: 'astifkin
You're welcome: 'abiskin

Idioms
No direct translation, but generally used as a statement of deep agreement: Po 'asofno zmiba (I hear your song)

Prayers
Oh Lord, hear my song: Ha'zo, 'asofkin baba

  Relevant Articles
 

Shutyilzh
Language | Nov 28, 2022

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