The continent of Cuyania stretches from the frozen north all the way to the glacial islands of its southern coast. In fact, it is more accurately called Pampania, in recognition of the fact that it and Pampia are one landmass. The two 'continents' are shaped roughly like an L, with the Iceforge Mountains at their axis and the Khanty Sea lying between them. The smaller continent of Kaabara is also connected to Cuyania via a narrow isthmus. These three sections of the one enormous landmass are considered different continents for cultural and practical reasons.
The northern reaches of Cuyania border the Spirit's Ocean, which is often covered in ice. The north is covered in rugged, mountains, tundra, small island chains, and large bays full of icebergs. Inhabitants of the Land of Spirits, the small landmass over the north pole, initially arrived by walking across the frozen sea from northern Cuyania. The tundra turns into a temperate region of forests. The land in the north is rarely flat, making it more challenging for agricultural communities to take root.
From the temperate north, the land turns into barren desert region from the coast to the mountains that continue to hug the east coast. This desert region is full of hard, reddish ground and doesn't have as many dunes as the sandy Eni Belul is famous for. The desert is home to several societies that have carved out a living among the cacti and mesas.
South of the desert is a section of scrub and grassland that gradually turns into the dense central rainforest. The rainforest is home to trees that soar hundreds of feet above a floor teeming with life. The central part of the forest has only hunter-gatherer groups due to the difficulty of building cities in such a dense forest, but the western part along the Khanty Sea is home to many societies that thrive in the tropical weather.
The rainforest gradually dries out to form progressively more temperate forests. Moving south along the eastern foothills of the Iceforge Mountains, the terrain becomes flat and lightly forested. Eventually this forest turns into a southern boreal forest that stretches across the Armorcan Peninsula. This forest is cool, foggy, and home to seemingly endless pine trees. This is where the isthmus connects Cuyania to Kaabara.
The forests are hemmed in to the south by the Tamak Mountains, a range that only looks small when compared to the Iceforges. Once past this range, there are no more trees. Tundra covers the southern coast and its many islands. There is no land at the south pole, but inhabitants of Cuyania's southern coast are experts at navigating the ever-shifting ice floes of the Southern Ocean.