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Mars is a dry, dusty, rust-colored world in the Sol system with a burgeoning introduced biosphere composed of terragenid organisms. It is Earth’s neighbor planet, and the first planet apart from Earth that was settled by humans.


Mars is the fourth planet out from its sun, Sol. It has two natural satellites: Phobos and Deimos, both small captured asteroids, as well as a human-built artificial satellite called Pyroeis (formerly the IMORS) in stationary orbit above New Thebes.

Mars is a former desert-class, current terra-class planet in the Sol system, and the first human colony world.

The dry land of Mars is concentrated more or less from the equator downward, with the northern hemisphere being mostly ocean covered by a large swathe of seasonal sea ice. The south pole hosts a similar icy sea, southward of the Hellan and Argyre Seas. The northwestern side of the Tharsis Mountains is a glacial tundra, bleeding down past the equator into the Daedalia Planum. The immediate southeast of the mountains is covered by the Tharsis Desert, composed of the Syria, Sinai, and Solis Plateaus, which is where the Mariner Valley begins. To the northwest of this arid promontory is the lush volcanic island of Elysium.


Mars' biosphere is merely a few centuries old but already fairly well-established; imported over the late 2300s through the 2600s from Earth (being terragenids.) Over generations, the humans of Mars have adapted to their extraterrestrial environment, even as they have adapted the environment itself. Martian humans, colloquially termed "rustfeet," have slowly evolved to become lankier than their Earthbound ancestors thanks to the significantly lower gravity of the red planet. Their cardiovascular and muscular systems have become slightly weaker, making life in higher gravity environments more of a challenge for Martians than their Earthen counterparts. However, rigorous physical training can be undertaken to prepare a Martian's physiology for more intense gravitational conditions.


People's Republic of Mars
Organization | Mar 31, 2021


Geological History

by ESA (Rosetta)
The planet was a desert world for most of its history, with an extremely thin and CO2-rich atmosphere that had been stripped over the eons by solar wind let through by the rapid decay of Mars' natural magnetic field. This dropped the surface temperature and pressure far below that at which liquid water is sustainable, forming the polar ice caps. Mars remained a thinly-aired, geologically dormant planet for eons until the arrival of humans.

For much more information, visit the Wikipedia page on Mars.

Human History

The first human landing on Mars took place on October 3, 2016. Remaining on the surface of the rust world for four months, the astronauts of the Ares I mission studied the composition of the red planet, tested the performance of new technologies, and determined which crops grew best in the harsh Martian environment. Thanks to the success of the Ares I mission, the Ares program was continued to the end of the fifth mission in 2036. In 2029, the Ares IV mission deployed the core block of the International Mars Orbital Research Station, followed by the delivery and assembly of the habitation module by the Ares V mission in 2049. Additional modules were delivered by unmanned commercial spacecraft over the course of the early 2040s, and the IMORS received its first crew in 2045 as part of a regular research crew rotation that would last for decades.

After over half a century of no human activity on the Martian surface, Daedalus Base was established in Da Vinci Crater in the beginning of 2100. Daedalus was humanity’s first permanent residence on a planet other than Earth, and allowed humans to study the workings of the planet more reliably than from orbit or the occasional landing. Following this, the BIFROST to supplies to the surface, eventually resulting in the mottled greenery seen on Mars from the 2600s onward.

by Unknown (unlocatable)
Mars circa 2900 CE.


  • Mars
    Mars is a former desert-class, current terra-class planet in the Sol system, and the first human colony world.
Location under
Owning Organization
2.5e+8 km from Sol

Orbital Characteristics

1.38 AU
1.67 AU
Semi-major axis
1.52 AU
Orbital period
686.97 days
Rotation period
24.5 hours
Notable satellites
  • Deimos (natural)
  • Phobos (natural)
  • Pyroeis

Planetary Characteristics

Class (former)
small frigid desert (D)
Class (current)
small cold terra (TR)
3389.5 km
Surface area
1.4e+8 km2
1.63e+11 km3
6.42e+23 kg
3.7 m/s2
Atmospheric pressure
0.7 atm
Atmosphere composition
  • 62.5% oxygen
  • 36.2% nitrogen
  • 0.2% carbon dioxide
  • 0.1% other gases
Average temperature

Biosphere Information

Organic multicellular (marine, terrestrial)
Tech level
2.4 billion
Martians (or "rustfeet")

Articles under Mars


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